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Gregoire P. Millet, David J. Bentley and Veronica E. Vleck

The relationships between sport sciences and sports are complex and changeable, and it is not clear how they reciprocally influence each other. By looking at the relationship between sport sciences and the “new” (~30-year-old) sport of triathlon, together with changes in scientific fields or topics that have occurred between 1984 and 2006 (278 publications), one observes that the change in the sport itself (eg, distance of the events, wetsuit, and drafting) can influence the specific focus of investigation. The sport-scientific fraternity has successfully used triathlon as a model of prolonged strenuous competition to investigate acute physiological adaptations and trauma, as support for better understanding cross-training effects, and, more recently, as a competitive sport with specific demands and physiological features. This commentary discusses the evolution of the scientific study of triathlon and how the development of the sport has affected the nature of scientific investigation directly related to triathlon and endurance sport in general.

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Joseph F. Healey

An exploratory and inductive study was conducted of the relationships between sport and personal memory. A diverse sample of 132 people were asked to recount their single clearest memory of sport. Analysis of the responses indicates that such memories are common and often very detailed and salient for the respondents. The characteristics of the memories are presented, six themes are identified and summarized, and the memories are related to four hypotheses derived from studies of the sociology of memory. Our memories of sport link us not only to the institution but also to significant group relationships and important episodes in our lives. These memories are also connected with our sense of self and reflect current orientations toward sports.

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Jack R. Engsberg, Lawrence G. Lenke, Keith H. Bridwell, Mary L. Uhrich and Connie M. Trout

This investigation determined relationships between coronal vertical alignment (CVA) and sagittal vertical alignment (SVA) variables calculated from radiographs and surface markers representing bony landmarks. Biplanar radiographs were taken on 28 subjects (standing) after 2 metallic surface markers were placed on the skin superficial to C7 and S2. The CVA-R and SVA-R were measured on the radiographs. Similar variables were calculated from the surface markers (CVA-P-R, SVA-P-R). Correlation between CVA-R and CVA-P-R was 0.894 (p < 0.000), and between SVA-R and SVA-P-R was 0.946 (p < 0.000). Results lead to three recommendations: (1) obtain surface marker data when radiographs are taken to establish relationships between the two sets of data, (2) take care in providing instructions to the subjects if measures are to be taken at different times, and (3) observe caution in interpreting results when simultaneous x-ray and surface marker data were not recorded.

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César García

Historically, Barcelona Football Club (BFC) has represented one of the pillars of Catalan identity, which earned it the slogan “more than a club.” In recent times, especially under the presidency of Joan Laporta, management has radicalized the club’s political positions by using BFC as a platform to openly promote the independence from Spain of the Catalan region. Despite the fact that most Barcelona fans in Catalonia, as well as in the rest of Spain, have much more moderate political positions, the radicalization of BFC does not appear to have eroded the relationship-building process with Barcelona fandom. This article argues that BFC as an institution still maintains a good relationship with its fans because the social, as well as individual, identity provided by allegiance to a soccer club such as BFC is ultimately more important to members and fans than the club’s political positions.

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Patrick Pelayo, Michel Sidney, Tarik Kherif, Didier Chollet and Claire Tourny

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between velocity, stroke length, and stroke rate in freestyle competitive events in order to compare male and female swimmers' results and assess their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Three hundred three male and 325 female swimmers of national and international levels were tested during competition. Solutions adopted in each freestyle event had specific characteristics affecting the stroke rate/stroke length ratio according to distance of the race. Differences in velocity between men and women primarily resulted from differences in stroke length. If the velocity and stroke rate/stroke length ratio depend on the distance swum and the sex of the swimmer, this survey shows the nondiscriminating aspect of anthropometric characteristics. Although swimmers achieved very similar velocity values with different combinations of stroke length and stroke rate, one must appreciate the average time and space characteristics currently used by the best male and female swimmers to optimize their performances.

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Hamid Najafipour, Masoomeh Kahnooji, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mahboobeh Yeganeh, Milad Ahmadi Gohari, Mitra Shadkam Farokhi and Ali Mirzazadeh

42.6% in 2008–2011. 13 Only a few studies have examined the relationship between CAD risk factors and PA in the Iranian population. With a population of 3,164,718 (in 2016), Kerman province constitutes 3.97% of Iran’s population, 14 from which 720,000 are living in Kerman, the capital of the

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Daniel Feeney, Steven J. Stanhope, Thomas W. Kaminski, Anthony Machi and Slobodan Jaric

The aims of the current study were to explore the pattern of the force–velocity (F–V) relationship of leg muscles, evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of the obtained parameters, and explore the load associated changes in the muscle work and power output. Subjects performed maximum vertical countermovement jumps with a vest ranging 0–40% of their body mass. The ground reaction force and leg joint kinematics and kinetics were recorded. The data revealed a strong and approximately linear F–V relationship (individual correlation coefficients ranged from 0.78–0.93). The relationship slopes, F- and V-intercepts, and the calculated power were moderately to highly reliable (0.67 < ICC < 0.91), while the concurrent validity F- and V-intercepts, and power with respect to the directly measured values, was (on average) moderate. Despite that a load increase was associated with a decrease in both the countermovement depth and absolute power, the absolute work done increased, as well as the relative contribution of the knee work. The obtained findings generally suggest that the loaded vertical jumps could not only be developed into a routine method for testing the capacities of leg muscles, but also reveal the mechanisms of adaptation of multijoint movements to different loading conditions.

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Ronita L. Cromwell and Roberta A. Newton

Age-related adaptations during walking create a more stable walking pattern, which is less effective for forward progression and might be related to balance deficiencies. This study determined the relationship between walking stability and measures of balance in older adults. Seventeen older and 20 young adults performed the Berg Balance Test (BBT) and walked 10 m. Walking velocity (WV) and cadence were measured, and a gait-stability ratio (GSR) was calculated. Higher GSR indicated that a greater portion of the gait cycle was spent in double-limb support. Age-group comparisons established declines in BBT scores and WV and increases in GSR with age. Significant relationships were identified for BBT Item 12 (alternate stepping on a stool) with WV (r = .58, r 2 = .34) and GSR (r = −.74, r 2 = .54). The correlation of BBT Item 12 with GSR was stronger than with WV (p < .05). Results indicated a strong relationship between increased gait stability and decreased balance for a dynamic weight-shifting task. Therefore, GSR is a better indicator of balance deficits during walking than is WV alone.

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

athletes to reduce irrational beliefs and anxiety, and increase rational beliefs, resilient qualities, and performance. However, research is yet to examine the prevalence of irrational beliefs in athletes compared to non-athletes and to fully explore the relationships between irrational beliefs and

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Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen and Regine Haardörfer

. Specifically, temperature has been found to modify human behavior, with a systematic review showing leisure-time physical activity increases in summer over winter months. 17 Although the majority of studies assessing the temperature–physical activity relationship find a positive association between