Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.
J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill
Gerald R. Ferris and Pamela L. Perrewé
The sport management field has witnessed tremendous growth just in the past couple of decades, with more programs in universities at the undergraduate, masters, and doctoral levels. Because there is keen competition for jobs at all levels, but particularly at the Ph.D. level in university faculty positions, and the lack of material published on how best to train, develop, and prepare doctoral students, this article focused on developing a combined apprenticeship and mentoring perspective on Ph.D. training, and discussed some of the specific features of that pedagogical approach. Hopefully, these ideas will help educators in sport management doctoral programs with their educational endeavors.
Linda S. Koehler
It is proposed that the focus of sport management research be broadened to include those individuals who fill management positions in sport/fitness-related enterprises. A particularly useful approach is that of organizational behavior as it pertains to sport/fitness managers. Drawing from the content of organizational behavior for use in the study presented here, items of measure for job satisfaction include ability utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies/practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical, variety, and working conditions. The corporate fitness managers participating in this study reported their level of general job satisfaction to be an average of 78.67 out of a possible 100 points. The factors shown to be significantly more satisfying than all other factors at the .05 level were social service and moral values. Additionally, although not significantly different from each other, both factors of advancement and compensation were revealed to be significantly more dissatisfying at the .05 level than all other factors.
Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner and Jeeheon Ryu
The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.
Sally Shaw and Wendy Frisby
Gender research in sport management has been dominated by liberal feminist theory, which does little to challenge or alter dominant gendered discourses and power structures within sport organizations. In this paper, the limitations of three existing conceptual frames for understanding gender equity are discussed. A fourth frame is proposed that builds on the work of Ely and Meyerson (2000a), Meyerson and Kolb (2000), and Rao, Stuart, and Kelleher (1999). We argue that the fourth frame, based on poststructural feminist theory, provides an important alternative, addressing the complexities of gender relations in sport organizations through the processes of critique, narrative revision, and experimentation. We extend the fourth frame by considering two additional elements: (a) the intersection of gender with other aspects of diversity and (b) a deconstruction of the traditional discourses that pit gender equity against organizational effectiveness using Bauman’s (2001) concept of moral sensitivity. The implications of the fourth frame are then discussed in relation to sport management teaching, research, and practice.