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Michael J. Asken

This paper discusses the delivery of sport psychology services to physically challenged (disabled) athletes. It begins with a description of the current status of athletic competition for physically disabled individuals. Commonalities in the sports experience of able-bodied and physically disabled athletes are addressed. Unique issues that must be considered for effective sport psychology consultations with disabled athletes are discussed. These include the background of physical and psychological trauma, altered physiological responses and medical problems, complexities in motivation to compete, unique performance problems, and the structure and organization of disabled sports. The article concludes with the effects of the social environment of disabled sports on the consultation process.

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Stephen J. Bull

This article presents a case study describing the contribution of a sport psychology consultant to an ultra-distance runner’s attempt to complete 500 miles (800 kilometers) in 20 days through the deserts of North America. The contribution can be considered in four phases that provide a descriptive framework for the role of a sport psychology consultant: (a) establishing a rapport with the athlete, (b) formulating a psychological profile, (c) evaluating the demands of the athletic pursuit and planning an appropriate mental training program, and (d) ongoing evaluation of progress and crisis intervention.

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Stewart T. Cotterill

mobile VR through smart phones (e.g., Samsung Gear VR, Google cardboard). This increased accessibility and mobility of VR systems makes them of increasing interest for sport performance, and sport psychology, in particular, for training in strategy, tactics and decision making, and the manipulation of

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

, represents a clinician with appropriate training and clinical experiences to competently treat athletes within the realms of neuropsychology, sport psychology, and clinical psychology. It is important to note that although this case represents a provider with areas of training that may not be shared by all

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Julie A. Waumsley, Brian Hemmings and Simon M. Payne

To date there has not been a comprehensive discussion in the literature of work-life balance for the sport psychology consultant. The number and complexity of roles often undertaken by consultants may lead to potential stress if roles conflict. Underpinned by Role Theory (Kahn, Wolfe, Quinn, Snoek, & Rosenthal, 1964) and the Spillover Hypothesis (Staines, 1980) this paper draws on the work-life balance literature to present the potential conflicts and ethical dilemmas experienced by the sport psychology consultant as a result of conducting multiple roles. With an applied focus, ways of obtaining work-life balance are suggested through a psychological model outlining personal organizational skills, ongoing supervision/mentoring and reflective practice, and safeguarding leisure time. While certain aspects of the model are built on the UK experience, many of the suggestions will be applicable to sport psychology consultants regardless of their location. Ideas for future research directions involving exploring conflicting roles, work-life balance and coping issues for the sport psychology consultant are presented.

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Daniel Gould, Shane Murphy, Vance Tammen and Jerry May

The present study was designed to identify (a) the backgrounds of U.S. Olympic sport psychology consultants, (b) the services they provide, (c) their own evaluation of those services, and (d) the problems they encounter as well as their recommendations for improving programs. Forty-four of 47 sport psychology consultants who were identified as working with sports affiliated with the U.S. Olympic Committee from 1984 to 1988 completed extensive surveys. Results revealed that the consultants represented 20 sports and were well trained in sport psychology. They were most frequently involved in individual athlete consultations, athlete group seminars, and individual coach consultations. Intervention techniques used most often included goal setting, relaxation training, arousal regulation, imagery-visualization, and self-talk. The consultants also indicated that the most frequently experienced problems were lack of program funding, poor scheduling and logistics, poor interaction with coaches, and lack of time to work with athletes. The need to individualize sport psychology strategies with athletes was identified as the most meaningful recommendation for the future.

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Eric W. Hayden, Alan S. Kornspan, Zachary T. Bruback, Michael C. Parent and Matthew Rodgers

One hundred twenty university counseling centers and athletic-department websites were viewed and analyzed for the provision of sport psychology services specifically to NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division I Football Bowl Championship Series (FBS) student athletes. Using content-analysis methodology, the present research identified a fair number of university athletic departments (n = 29) and university counseling centers (n = 6) that provided specific sport psychology services. In addition, most athletic departments and counseling centers that provided sport psychology services had one individual on staff who was listed as the service provider. Results of the study are discussed in relation to providing a current understanding of the extent to which sport psychology is presently being provided to NCAA Division I FBS university student athletes. Future qualitative research is recommended to examine the work of professionals providing sport psychology services in athletic departments and counseling centers to better understand the precise nature of the services provided.

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Brenda A. Riemer

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Susumu Iwasaki and Mary D. Fry

This study highlights how sport psychology professionals can assist sport administrators in evaluating and strengthening youth sport programs. A sport psychology research team provided expertise to two sport administrators to develop a survey to examine their athletes’ experiences participating in the programs. The study examines the relationship between athletes’ perceptions of the climate (caring, task, and ego involving) to their intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future intention to participate in the sport. Volleyball clinic (Sample 1: N = 71) and basketball summer camp (Sample 2: N = 138) participants completed the survey. Canonical correlation analyses for each sample revealed one significant function indicating that the athletes’ perceptions of a caring/task-involving climate, along with low perceptions of an ego-involving climate, were associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future desire to participate. Sport administrators can use this information for coach training, parent education and overall program evaluation.

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Pete Lindsay, Owen Thomas and Gemma Douglas

Metaphors are pervasive in everyday language, thoughts and actions (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). The field of sport psychology, and more explicitly practitioner-client dialogue, remain exposed to such communication. Despite the prevalence of metaphor in our daily interactions, metaphorical discourse is often ignored, or unknowingly used in therapeutic settings (Jinks, 2006). However, noticing a client’s use of metaphor may provide an opportunity to work within the athlete’s metaphorical landscape (i.e., the sum total of their symbolic perceptions, Lawley & Tomkins, 2000) to facilitate therapeutic change (Kopp, 1995). Based upon established mainstream approaches, the present article proposes a composite framework for working with client generated metaphors in sport psychology practice (cf. Kopp, 1995; Lawley & Tomkins, 2000; Sims, 2003). The framework is contextualized through an exploration of case examples derived from the authors’ experiences of working within the metaphorical landscape of a series of clients. The article concludes with various implications for the work and training of applied sport psychologists.