The ability to observe and interpret events during instruction is thought to be an important dimension of effective teachers. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to observe and interpret teaching physical education at different stages of expertise. Ten freshman preservice students, 7 experienced junior students, and 2 teacher educators served as subjects. Each subject viewed a 15-minute videotaped lesson on basketball dribbling taught to approximately 20 third-grade students. Subjects were instructed to observe the lesson, take notes, and write a description or evaluation of what they observed during the lesson. Experienced students wrote substantially more evaluative interpretations than novice preservice students. The interpretations of the experienced preservice students were similar to the teacher educators in the focus of observation and the use of a technical language. However, teacher educators’ interpretations were more organized and were focused more on lesson occurrences that influenced students’ motor-skill performance.
Kathy C. Graham, Karen E. French and Amelia M. Woods
Kathryn L. Davis
This review is an examination of selected literature from the past thirty years on gender equity in physical education. It is organized in terms of (1) defining the theoretical framework of gender equity, (2) the origins of gender equity in physical education from Title IX legislation, (3) the influence of teacher behavior and the curriculum in providing an equitable class environment, and (4) the applications and implications of gender equity for the physical education practitioner. Despite the well-developed research in the field of physical education about the prevalence of gender inequities exhibited by teachers, there are a few recent research studies in which the authors have failed to show this inequitable treatment. As research has progressed in this area, it is important to note that teachers may be improving in the area of equitable interactions with students of different genders. This review concludes with some suggestions for further research in the area of teaching for gender equity in physical education.
Thomas J. Martinek
There is considerable variability among students in the way they are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance. The present article describes a model from which this variability can be partially explained. The model basically describes a series of mediating events that include (a) students’ perceptions of their teachers’ behaviors directed to them, (b) the students’ interpretation of the perceived teaching behaviors, and (c) the effects of the students’ interpretation of the teachers’ actions on their performance and/or behavior. Special attention will focus on the types of attributions students make when explaining the social interactions that transpire between them and their teacher during instruction. It is hoped that this article will increase the clarity of the Pygmalion phenomenon and provide some guidelines for future research in this area.
Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon
Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).
This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.
Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.
Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.
PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.
Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods
Within the U.S. context, higher education faculty members engage in a variety of work roles related to research, teaching, and service that position them as stewards for their respective disciplines ( Golde & Walker, 2006 ). In physical education teacher education (PETE), this disciplinary
This study assessed the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in teaching tennis rules and strategies. The subjects were enrolled in two beginning tennis classes at The Pennsylvania State University. The control group (n=24) received instruction by traditional means. The experimental group (n=19) received no instruction on tennis rules and strategies during regular class periods but did interact with computer-assisted tutorials during two scheduled classes. A written test was used to measure learning and was administered during pretest, posttest, and retest. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor (ANOVR) was employed to determine significant differences between mean performances. The between-groups analysis and the interaction analysis were not significant, but the within-group analysis revealed an F ratio of 99.72 (p<.001). It was concluded that both groups learned tennis rules and strategies significantly from the pretest to the posttest, their learning performance on the retest differed significantly from pretest administration but not from posttest to the retest, and there was no significant difference between the performance of either group on all three testing occasions.
Bruce Elliott and Joanne Mitchell
Two-dimensional high-speed photography was used to compare the performances of six elite gymnasts on a Yurchenko vault and two associated teaching drills. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to test the significance of the differences between those variables common to both drills and the vault, while a one-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between biomechanical variables common to only one drill and the vault. Results indicated that in general the variables common to each drill and the vault were similar in magnitude. However, a number of kinematic characteristics recorded in the drills differed from those recorded for the vault both in this study and from data reported in the literature for international level performers. These included horizontal velocity at takeoff from beat board; knee joint, lower trunk, midtrunk, and head/neck segments at takeoff from beat board; knee joint angle and vertical velocity of CG at impact with horse; vertical velocity, trunk angles, and ankle joint angle at takeoff from horse; horizontal displacement of CG while hands were in contact with horse; and the time the hands were in contact with horse. Variables identified as being important for success in the vault were also reported.
Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis
A variety of definitions for interdisciplinary teaching have been proposed. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods ( 1998 ) defined it as an educational process in which two or more subject areas are integrated with a goal of fostering enhanced learning in each subject area. Jacobs ( 1989 ) defined it as
Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards
regulate their own emotions than others ( Mayer & Salovey, 1997 ). Emotional intelligence is particularly important in general education as evidence has shown that emotions are related both to teaching effectiveness ( Asrar-ul-Haq, Anwar, & Hassan, 2017 ; Frenzel, 2014 ) and teachers’ personal well
Javier Fernandez-Rio and Jose Ignacio Menendez-Santurio
The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers’ perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility.
Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers agreed to participate. Several instruments were used to collect data: (a) an open-ended question, (b) Photovoice, (c) teacher and external observers’ diaries, and (d) semistructured interviews. MAXQDA 11 software was used to assist with data management, with all participants’ answers being analyzed via thematic content analysis.
Analysis of the data produced 11 themes, three considered strong: responsibility, learning and roles, five considered moderate: enjoyment, teaching, competition, cooperation and novelty, and three considered weak: friendship, affiliation and transfer.
These findings indicated that the hybridization of the two pedagogical models seems to help increase both social and personal responsibility and to provide students with meaningful sporting experiences.