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Thomas J. Martinek

There is considerable variability among students in the way they are affected by their teachers’ expectations for their future performance. The present article describes a model from which this variability can be partially explained. The model basically describes a series of mediating events that include (a) students’ perceptions of their teachers’ behaviors directed to them, (b) the students’ interpretation of the perceived teaching behaviors, and (c) the effects of the students’ interpretation of the teachers’ actions on their performance and/or behavior. Special attention will focus on the types of attributions students make when explaining the social interactions that transpire between them and their teacher during instruction. It is hoped that this article will increase the clarity of the Pygmalion phenomenon and provide some guidelines for future research in this area.

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Mark Byra and Jayne Jenkins

The purpose of this study was to describe student decision making in the inclusion style of teaching. Two questions helped to guide the investigation: (a) Will learners select from alternative levels of difficulty within a given task? And (b) what is the basis for learner decision making when selecting from alternative levels of difficulty? Forty-two 5th-graders in one school received instruction in striking with a bat for two 30-minute lessons. The learners performed a batting task in three sets of 10 trials in each lesson and made decisions about level of task difficulty. Data sources were the lesson task sheets and transcribed postlesson interviews. The results indicated that 5th-graders (a) select different levels of task difficulty when provided the opportunity, and (b) make task decisions based on perceived success and challenge.

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J. Len Gusthart, Ivan M. Kelly and Judith E. Rink

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Qualitative Measures of Teaching Performance Scale (QMTPS; Rink & Werner, 1989) and teacher effectiveness in producing student achievement. The QMTPS focuses primarily on variables related to teacher clarity and task presentation. Nine middle school generalist (classroom) teachers were asked to teach the volleyball forearm pass and serve over eight lessons as part of their normal curriculum. Students were pre- and posttested on the serve and forearm pass using the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (1969) volleyball tests. All lessons were videotaped and were coded using the QMTPS instrument. The relationship between the QMTPS total score and student achievement was significant for the forearm pass and for the serve. The authors concluded that the QMTPS was a valid measure of teacher effectiveness when the total QMTPS score for several lessons was used.

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Michael Hodges, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Chong Lee and Ja Youn Kwon

Students of all ages have documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK). However, improving students HRFK may require a change in teacher practices and professional development (PD).


This study, framed by Guskey’s Model of Teacher Change (GMTC; Guskey, 2002), sought to assist teachers’ HRFK instruction as part of their physical education curriculum and practices. Initially, researchers examined: (a) teachers’ perceptions of health-related fitness knowledge instruction, followed by, (b) selected teachers’ perceptions of the professional development (PD) methods and the approach to teaching HRFK.


Semistructured interviews were conducted among elementary physical education teachers’ (N = 9) in one suburban school district. A randomly selected smaller group of teachers (n = 5), had PD on Knowledge in Action Lesson Segments (KIALS), an approach to teaching HRFK. Teachers were asked to implement KIALS into their fifth grade physical education classes and interviewed two additional times.


Three themes emerged from the data: (a) HRFK is critical but I can’t get to it; (b) If you show it, they will implement it; and (c) Knowledge in Action gets the job done.


PD procedures in this study and KIALS were seen as favorable. Results paralleled GMTC principles, as researchers confirmed quality PD, and observations of positive student outcomes further reinforced teachers’ beliefs. Teachers also expressed a willingness to continue using KIALS after the completion of this study, concluding achievement of the final fourth principal of the change process. Findings suggested that KIALS, if presented with similar PD will be well-received by teachers supporting their efforts to improve student HRFK outcomes.

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Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

Within the U.S. context, higher education faculty members engage in a variety of work roles related to research, teaching, and service that position them as stewards for their respective disciplines ( Golde & Walker, 2006 ). In physical education teacher education (PETE), this disciplinary

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Bruce Elliott and Joanne Mitchell

Two-dimensional high-speed photography was used to compare the performances of six elite gymnasts on a Yurchenko vault and two associated teaching drills. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to test the significance of the differences between those variables common to both drills and the vault, while a one-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between biomechanical variables common to only one drill and the vault. Results indicated that in general the variables common to each drill and the vault were similar in magnitude. However, a number of kinematic characteristics recorded in the drills differed from those recorded for the vault both in this study and from data reported in the literature for international level performers. These included horizontal velocity at takeoff from beat board; knee joint, lower trunk, midtrunk, and head/neck segments at takeoff from beat board; knee joint angle and vertical velocity of CG at impact with horse; vertical velocity, trunk angles, and ankle joint angle at takeoff from horse; horizontal displacement of CG while hands were in contact with horse; and the time the hands were in contact with horse. Variables identified as being important for success in the vault were also reported.

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Mary-Margaret Kerns

This study assessed the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in teaching tennis rules and strategies. The subjects were enrolled in two beginning tennis classes at The Pennsylvania State University. The control group (n=24) received instruction by traditional means. The experimental group (n=19) received no instruction on tennis rules and strategies during regular class periods but did interact with computer-assisted tutorials during two scheduled classes. A written test was used to measure learning and was administered during pretest, posttest, and retest. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor (ANOVR) was employed to determine significant differences between mean performances. The between-groups analysis and the interaction analysis were not significant, but the within-group analysis revealed an F ratio of 99.72 (p<.001). It was concluded that both groups learned tennis rules and strategies significantly from the pretest to the posttest, their learning performance on the retest differed significantly from pretest administration but not from posttest to the retest, and there was no significant difference between the performance of either group on all three testing occasions.

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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

A variety of definitions for interdisciplinary teaching have been proposed. Cone, Werner, Cone, and Woods ( 1998 ) defined it as an educational process in which two or more subject areas are integrated with a goal of fostering enhanced learning in each subject area. Jacobs ( 1989 ) defined it as

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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards

regulate their own emotions than others ( Mayer & Salovey, 1997 ). Emotional intelligence is particularly important in general education as evidence has shown that emotions are related both to teaching effectiveness ( Asrar-ul-Haq, Anwar, & Hassan, 2017 ; Frenzel, 2014 ) and teachers’ personal well

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Sherry L. Folsom-Meek and Terry L. Rizzo

The purpose of this study was to assess validity and reliability of the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities III (PEATID III; Rizzo, 1993) for future professionals. Participants (N = 3,464) were undergraduate students enrolled in the introductory adapted physical education course at 235 colleges and universities. Construct validity was obtained through principal components analysis with oblique rotation and supported by principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Results showed that PEATID III measures three factors: (a) outcomes of teaching students with disabilities in regular classes, (b) effects on student learning, and (c) need for more academic preparation to teach students with disabilities. Reliability, as estimated through coefficient alpha, was .88 for the total scale and .71 or greater for each of the disability subscales.