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Nick Cavill, Stuart Biddle and James F. Sallis

An expert consensus development process was initiated to make public health recommendations regarding young people (5–18 years) and physical activity. Eight commissioned review papers were discussed at a meeting of over 50 academics and experts from a range of disciplines from the UK and overseas. Participants agreed on a consensus statement that summarized the research evidence and made two core recommendations. First, to optimize current and future health, all young people should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for 1 hour per day. Young people who currently do little activity should participate in physical activity of at least moderate intensity for at least half an hour per day. The subsidiary recommendation is that, at least twice a week, some of these activities should help to enhance and maintain muscular strength and flexibility and bone health. A second aspect of the consensus process, which was based on extensive consultation, outlined the practical ways in which key organizations can work together to implement these recommendations. The resultant consensus statement provides a strong basis for the planning of future policies and programs to enhance young people’s participation in health-enhancing physical activity

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Bruce W. Bailey, Pamela Borup, James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker and Jacob Bromley

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intensity of physical activity (PA) and body composition in 343 young women.

Methods:

Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn for 7 days in women 17 to 25 years. Body composition was assessed using the BOD POD.

Results:

Young women who spent less than 30 minutes a week performing vigorous PA had significantly higher body fat percentages than women who performed more than 30 minutes of vigorous PA per week (F = 4.54, P = .0113). Young women who spent less than 30 minutes per day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) had significantly higher body fat percentages than those who obtained more than 30 minutes per day of MVPA (F = 7.47, P = .0066). Accumulating more than 90 minutes of MVPA per day was associated with the lowest percent body fat. For every 10 minutes spent in MVPA per day, the odds of having a body fat percentage above 32% decreased by 29% (P = .0002).

Conclusion:

Vigorous PA and MVPA are associated with lower adiposity. Young women should be encouraged to accumulate at least 30 minutes of MVPA per day, however getting more than 90 minutes a day is predictive of even lower levels of adiposity.

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Lina Engelen, Anita C Bundy, Adrian Bauman, Geraldine Naughton, Shirley Wyver and Louise Baur

Background:

Children can spend substantial amounts of leisure time in sedentary activities, dominated by TV/screen time. However, objective real-time measurement of activities after school among young school children is seldom described.

Methods:

School children (n = 246, 5−7 years old, mean 6.0) and their parents were recruited by random selection from 14 schools across Sydney, Australia. Parents used a real-time objective measure (Experience Sampling Method, ESM) to record children’s activities and whether they were indoors or outdoors at 3 random times each day after school. Data were collected across 4 weekdays in 1 week and then, 13 weeks later, another 4 weekdays in 1 week.

Results:

Results were based on 2940 responses from 214 childparent dyads showed that 25% of behavior involved physical activity, 51% was spent in sedentary activities, and 22% was TV/ screen time. Most instances (81%) occurred indoors.

Conclusion:

Despite a high proportion of TV/screen time, children were also engaged in a range of other sedentary and physically active pursuits after school. Hence TV/screen time is not a suitable proxy for all sedentary behavior, and it is important to gather information on other non–screen-based sedentary and physically active behaviors. Future research is warranted to further investigate after-school activities in young primary school children.

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Bettina Callary, Scott Rathwell and Bradley W. Young

encouraged to use the same psycho-social approach when coaching MAs and youth. Several empirical works have uncovered pertinent information about the coached Masters sport context, suggesting that certain aspects of coaching may be very unique to this age cohort. For example, Callary, Rathwell, and Young

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Mark B.A. De Ste Croix, Neil Armstrong and Joanne R. Welsman

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of repeated isokinetic knee extension and flexion in young children and to examine sex differences in 30 untrained subjects (16 boys and 14 girls) aged 12.2 ± 0.3 years. Total work and the percentage decline in average torque and work were recorded during 50 repetitions. Intra-class correlation coefficients indicated a strong positive correlation between test 1 and 2 for all parameters ranging from 0.36–0.95. Coefficient of variation data ranged from ± 0% to ± 5.4%. Repeatability coefficients and limits of agreement indicated that the extensors were more reliable than the flexors for both torque and work. There were no significant sex differences in any of the parameters measured. This study suggests that repeated isokinetic muscle actions of the knee, as a function of muscle endurance, can be reliably assessed in young people.

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Theophanis Siatras, Dimitra Mameletzi and Spiros Kellis

The purpose of the study was to determine young male gymnasts’ and swimmers’ knee flexor:extensor (F:E) ratios during isokinetic testing at different velocities. Nine gymnasts (10.3 ± 0.5 years) and 14 swimmers (10.5 ± 0.5 years) participated. Concentric isokinetic peak torque was measured by a Cybex® Norm dynamometer at different angular velocities (60,120, and 180°/s) during unilateral knee extensions and flexions after gravity correction. Significant differences were found only in gymnasts’ knee F:E peak-torque ratios between the angular velocities of 60 and 120°/s (p < 0.01), as well as 60–180°/s (p < .01), whereas swimmers’ ratios were unchanged. Gymnasts presented significantly higher F:E ratios than swimmers did at the angular velocities of 120°/s (p < .01) and 180°/s (p < .001). The reciprocal ratios provided some indication that the training context of young athletes can influence the balance between agonistic and antagonistic activity of the lower limbs’ major muscle groups.

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J. Timothy Bricker, Arthur Garson Jr., Stephen M. Paridon and Thomas A. Vargo

This study evaluated prospective exercise correlates of sinus node function in young individuals. Subjects for this study were 25 children and young adults who required cardiac catheterization for a symptomatic arrhythmia. Measurements of sinus node function at elechophysiological catheterization were the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) and sinoatrial conduction time (SACT). Maximal exercise testing was performed using a Bruce treadmill protocol the day prior to cardiac catheterization. Exercise measurements included resting heart rate, peak heart rate, cardiac acceleration from rest to 3 minutes, from rest to 6 minutes, from rest to peak, and from 3 to 6 minutes, cardiac deceleration from peak to 1 minute postexercise, deceleration for each minute of recovery, recovery heart rates for each of 5 minutes postexercise, heart rate at which respiratory exchange ratio >1.0 and slope of the heart rate – VO2 curve. Exercise testing did not predict intracardiac measures of sinus node function either as a group (“normal” vs. “abnormal” groups) or individually.

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Nisara Jiwani and Geneviève Rail

This article focuses on the results of a study exploring young Shia Muslim Canadian women’s discursive constructions of physical activity in relation to Islam and the Hijab. The aims of the study were primarily informed by feminist poststructuralist and postcolonial theories. Poststructuralist discourse analysis was used to analyze the transcripts of conversations with 10 young Hijab-wearing Shia Muslim Canadian women. The results show that the participants discursively constructed physical activity in terms of being physically active (involved in fitness activities rather than sport), feeling good about themselves (i.e., being physically and mentally healthy), and losing weight or remaining “not fat.” The participants mentioned that they would choose Islam over physical activity if they had to make a choice between the two. Participants strongly resisted the Islamophobic discourse present in Canada, and appropriated an intersectional discourse that legitimates their refusal to choose between their right to religious freedom and their right to physical activity.

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Daniel T. Bishop, Costas I. Karageorghis and Georgios Loizou

The main objectives of this study were (a) to elucidate young tennis players’ use of music to manipulate emotional states, and (b) to present a model grounded in present data to illustrate this phenomenon and to stimulate further research. Anecdotal evidence suggests that music listening is used regularly by elite athletes as a preperformance strategy, but only limited empirical evidence corroborates such use. Young tennis players (N = 14) were selected purposively for interview and diary data collection. Results indicated that participants consciously selected music to elicit various emotional states; frequently reported consequences of music listening included improved mood, increased arousal, and visual and auditory imagery. The choice of music tracks and the impact of music listening were mediated by a number of factors, including extramusical associations, inspirational lyrics, music properties, and desired emotional state. Implications for the future investigation of preperformance music are discussed.

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Morten Renslo Sandvik, Åse Strandbu and Sigmund Loland

In everyday communication, participants can critically explore their understanding of morally complex phenomena. There has been little effort within the social sciences to provide insight into whether and how athletes communicate among themselves about morally contested topics. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature. Through focus group interviews and with the help of Goffman’s frame analysis, we explore how a group of young, Norwegian road cyclists communicates about doping. The article demonstrates that this communication is strongly norm-regulated and often appears as brief, assertive, and evasive. We show how the communication reflects a hegemonic discourse of doping as immoral and inexcusable. We conclude that this discourse limits explorative communication and may limit young athletes’ preparation for doping-related dilemmas and social pressures.