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Terry L. Rizzo

Edited by Lauriece Zittel

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Marina Fortes, Grégory Ninot and Didier Delignières

The aims of this tutorial are three-fold: (a) to clarify the meaning of variability measurement in personality and social psychology, (b) to demonstrate the relevance of and the need for time series analysis in investigations into the dynamics of psychological phenomena, and (c) to provide specific methods to analyze time series. This paper first presents a step-by-step description of univariate Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-average (ARIMA) procedures, which are useful tools for building iterative models from empirical time series. We then develop two empirical examples in detail, based on the analysis of self-esteem and behavioral data. These examples allow us to present the two most often used models.

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Cathy Houston-Wilson and Kathy Brinker

Edited by Terry Rizzo

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S. Tolomio, A. Ermolao, G. Travain and M. Zaccaria

Background and aims:

It is known that people affected by osteopenia/osteoporosis can benefit from an adequate amount of physical activity, counteracting the progressive loss of bone and muscle mass caused by aging. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that exercise has positive effects on bone structure. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone tissue and muscular strength of a short-term exercise program in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women.

Methods:

Forty-nine osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women were divided into 2 groups: exercise and control. All subjects underwent 2 evaluations: before and after a training period. Bone quality was assessed by phalangeal quantitative osteosonography, and maximal strength of leg extensor muscles was also evaluated. The experimental group participated in a specific supervised 20-week physical activity program that included aerobic, balance, and strength training.

Results:

After the training period, all bone parameters and lower-limb maximal strength were significantly improved in the exercise group (P < .05), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group.

Conclusions:

Our study showed that a broad-based training protocol, lasting 20 weeks, can improve leg strength and bone quality parameters—main determinants of fall and fracture risk, respectively.