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Alexander T. Latinjak

often associated to specific emotions, all of which are characterized to be of low arousal ( Latinjak, 2012 ): fatigue, relaxation and, most of all, boredom. In regard to fatigue, evidence from sport research on the effects of mind wandering on fatigue is ambiguous. On the one hand, a dissociative

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Maureen R. Weiss

gave for participating in sports. They consolidated reasons into motives of affiliation (e.g., making friends), excellence (e.g., doing something well), arousal (e.g., it’s exciting), and esteem (e.g., approval from others). What followed was a flurry of similar descriptive studies in the 1980s, using

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Jeffrey J. Martin

and pride seem to be less of a fit while still being desirable positive affective states. When viewed through the circumplex model of emotion ( Russell, 1980 ), fun can be viewed as falling within the high-valence and high-arousal quadrant, whereas contentment can be conceptualized as high valence and

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Bradley D. Hatfield

-demanding, and effortful mode with overall increased cortical arousal, and engagement of elevated cortico-cortical communication between sensory, associative, and motor processes. In contrast, the expert approaches a task on which he or she is highly practiced and performs with automaticity and efficient

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy and Christine M. Baugh

decision that is largely made reactively and emotionally, in situations of high arousal during a competitive event. Under these conditions, knowledge and attitudes about concussions, such as reporting outcome expectations, may be less salient than influences in the immediate decisional environment ( Figner

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A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver

:10.1123/kr.2016-0005 10.1123/kr.2016-0005 Vickers , J.N. , & Williams , A.M. ( 2007 ). Performing under pressure: The effects of physiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and gaze control in biathlon . Journal of Motor Behavior, 39 ( 5 ), 381 – 394 . PubMed doi:10.3200/JMBR.39.5.381-394 10

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Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling

of the crowd with their eyes closed. They do not get to sing the song, but the trainer instead asks the participants to be aware of their thoughts and feelings while aroused. Experiences of the exercise and how it relates to ice hockey and the overall aim of the training is discussed in the group

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Kristoffer Henriksen, Louise Kamuk Storm, Natalia Stambulova, Nicklas Pyrdol and Carsten Hvid Larsen

taught a specific set of psychological skills (e.g., goal setting, arousal regulation), others always let the focus areas grow out of the interaction with athletes and coaches. However, the content tended to be better adapted to the specific sport and team in the successful interventions than in the less

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

associated with an elevated precompetitive anxiety (e.g.,  Barlow et al., 2016 ; Mateo, Blasco-Lafarga, Martinez-Navarro, Guzman, & Zabala, 2012 ; Murray & Raedeke, 2008 ). Muscle Activity As an additional objective measure of arousal and tension associated with anxiety, we recorded muscle activity in the

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Vellapandian Ponnusamy, Michelle Guerrero and Jeffrey J. Martin

.g., imagery, goal-setting, self-talk, arousal regulation, and attentional control) are systematically used by the athlete to achieve desired outcomes. While the literature of the effectiveness of psychological strategies is well-documented (e.g.,  Cohen, Tenenbaum, & English, 2006 ; Mamassis & Doganis, 2004