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Christie L. Ward, Rudy J. Valentine and Ellen M. Evans

Adiposity, lean mass, and physical activity (PA) are known to influence physical function in older adults, although the independent influences are not completely characterized. Older adults (N = 156, M age = 68.9 ± 6.7 yr, 85 men) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, PA by accelerometer, and physical function via timed up-and-go (UP&GO), 30-s chair stand, 6-min walk (6-min WALK), and Star-Excursion Balance Test. In the absence of percentage-body-fat by PA interactions (p > .05), main effects existed such that a higher percentage body fat was associated with poorer performance in UP&GO, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min WALK (p < .05). No significant main effects were found for PA and functional performance. Adiposity explains 4.6–11.4% in physical functional variance (p < .05). Preventing increases in adiposity with age may help older adults maintain functional independence.

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Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore

The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between exercise training and resting metabolic rate (RMR). The focus of this investigation was to compare RMR in aerobically trained (AT), resistance trained (RT), and untrained (UNT) women. Subjects were also classified as highly trained (HT), moderately trained (MT), or untrained (UNT) in order to examine the relationship between RMR and level of training. Sixty-one women between the ages of 18 and 46 years volunteered to serve as subjects in this study. Each subject completed measurements of body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and two consecutive measurements of RMR. The data presented show that there was no significant difference in resting metabolic rate between resistance-trained, aerobically trained, and control subjects. However, when grouped by intensity of training, there was a trend for an increased resting metabolic rate (kcal/day) in the highly trained subjects, regardless of mode of training.

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Robert C. Eklund and Sally Crawford

The purpose of this investigation was to replicate and extend Crawford and Eklund's (1994) investigation of social physique anxiety (SPA) and exercise. Women (N = 94) enrolled in physical education activity or major classes participated in the investigation. Data were collected on SPA, weight satisfaction, percent body fat, reasons for exercise, exercise behaviors and preferences, and attitudes toward two aerobic class video presentations featuring a manipulation of physique salience. Consistent with the previous investigation, self-presentational reasons for exercise (body tone, weight control, and physical attractiveness) were positively associated with SPA in both simple correlations and hierarchical analyses controlling for body composition. In contrast to previous findings, SPA was not associated with favorability of attitudes toward either of the video presentations. The inability to fully replicate Crawford and Eklund's (1993) findings raised interesting questions with regard to variables that may moderate or mediate self-presentational anxiety in exercise settings.

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David Travis Thomas, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

Purpose:

To examine the effect of yogurt supplementation pre- and postexercise on changes in body composition in overweight women engaged in a resistance-training program.

Methods:

Participants (age = 36.8 ± 4.8 yr) with a body-mass index of 29.1±2.1 kg/m2 were randomized to yogurt supplement (YOG; n = 15) or isoenergetic sucrose beverage (CONT; n = 14) consumed before and after exercise for 16 wk. Participants were also instructed to reduce energy intake daily (–1,046 kJ) during the study. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist circumference, and sagittal diameter. Strength was measured with 1-repetition maximum. Dietary recalls were obtained by a multipass approach using Nutrition Data System software. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-3 were measured with ELISA.

Results:

Significant weight losses of 2.6 ± 4.5 kg (YOG) and 1.2 ± 2.5 kg (CONT) were observed. Total lean weight increased significantly over time in both YOG (0.8 ± 1.2 kg) and CONT (1.1 ± 0.9 kg). Significant reductions in total fat (YOG = 3.4 ± 4.1 kg vs. CONT = 2.3 ± 2.4 kg) were observed over time. Waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and trunk fat decreased significantly over time without group differences. Both groups significantly decreased energy intake while maintaining protein intake. Strength significantly increased over time in both groups. No changes over time or between groups were observed in hormone levels.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that yogurt supplementation offered no added benefit for increasing lean mass when combined with resistance training and modest energy restriction.

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Ezzedine Bouhlel, Myriam Denguezli, Monia Zaouali, Zouhair Tabka and Roy J. Shephard

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on parameters of insulin resistance in trained athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise.

Methods:

Nine male rugby players (age 19 ± 2 yr, height 1.78 ± 0.74 m) were tested 3 times: 1 week before observance of Ramadan (C), at the end of the first week (R1), and during the fourth week (R2). They performed a progressive cycle-ergometer test at each visit. Data collected at rest and at the end of aerobic exercise included simple anthropometry (body mass, body-mass index, body fat, fat-free mass), biochemical parameters (serum glucose, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, and serum proteins), and selected hormone concentrations (plasma insulin, leptin, and adiponectin).

Results:

Ramadan fasting was associated with a reduction of body mass and body fat (R2 vs. C, p < .01) without significant change in leptin or adiponectin levels.

Conclusion:

Lipolysis might have occurred because of increased plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol concentrations.

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Robert Gorinski and Wendy Stuhldreher

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Jennifer Gornall and Rudolph G. Villani

The primary aim was to investigate whether the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM) associated with a short-term very low kilojoule diet (VLKD) is altered by concurrent resistance exercise. Twenty overweight, premenopausal women were pair matched on body surface area and randomly assigned to either diet only (3,400 kJ/day) or diet combined with resistance training. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry; total body mass (TBM), FFM, and fat mass (FM) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; total body water (TBW) by bioelectrical impedance; and strength by a weight-lifting test. Both groups had significantly lower TBM, FFM, FM, TBW, absolute RMR, and RMR, with FFM as the covariate, in the posttests than the pretests with no significant differences between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.

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Kenneth H. Pitetti, Daniel A. Yarmer and Bo Fernhall

The purpose of this study was to compare the aerobic fitness and body mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents (8-18 yr) with and without mild mental retardation (MR). Sample size of participants with MR but without Down syndrome was 169 males and 99 females. Sample size of participants without MR was 289 males and 317 females. Analysis was made by gender and age: children (8-10 yr); early adolescents (11-14 yr); and late adolescents (15-18 yr). The 20-m shuttle run test (20 MST) was used to assess field test performance and predicted aerobic fitness. For all age groups, females and males without MR ran significantly more laps and had a significantly higher predicted aerobic fitness (V̇O2peak: ml $$ kg-1 $$ min-1) than their peers with MR. Additionally, participants with MR tended to have higher BMI than their peers without MR. The results of this study indicate that children and adolescents with MR have lower exercise capacity, lower aerobic fitness, and higher BMIs than their peers without MR.

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Stuart J. Fairclough

This study assessed the physical activity levels of 20 high school girls (age 13 years, SD = 1.1) during physical education classes, over an 8-month period. Physical activity was measured by heart rate telemetry and accelerometry. Skinfold measurements were used to estimate percent body fat, and peak VO2 was assessed by maximal treadmill running. Girls engaged in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) for 38.5% of class time and produced 961.8 vector magnitude (Vmag) counts · min−1. Body fat was inversely correlated with Vmag counts · min−1 (r = −.65, p < .01) and peak VO2 (r = −.65, p < .01). Girls’ MVPA in physical education did not meet the Healthy People 2010 50% of class time criterion. Body fat significantly predicted 42% of the variance in Vmag counts · min−1. Cardiorespiratory fitness appeared not to influence physical activity during physical education, regardless of measurement method. Girls’ physical activity in physical education may be improved if schools advocate planned lesson outcomes that aim to maximize opportunities for physical activity.