Search Results

You are looking at 141 - 150 of 816 items for :

  • "body mass" x
  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
Clear All
Restricted access

Juliana Pereira Borges, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Paulo Farinatti, Marina Pereira Coelho, Pablo Marino Correa Nascimento, Gabriella de Oliveira Lopes, Daniel Arkader Kopiler and Eduardo Tibiriçá

Background:

It remains unclear whether self-regulated exercise is sufficient to maintain the benefits acquired during formal cardiac rehabilitation (CR). This retrospective observational study investigated the effects of a home-based exercise intervention after discharge from CR upon anthropometric and aerobic capacity markers in clinically stable patients.

Methods:

Fifty patients with cardiovascular disease were discharged after 6 months of CR and encouraged to maintain aerobic exercise without supervision. Subsequent to 6 months of follow-up, patients were assigned to compliant (n = 34) or noncompliant (n = 16) groups according to their compliance to the home-based program. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and anthropometric data were assessed before CR, at discharge, and after 6 months of follow-up.

Results:

No statistical differences between compliant and noncompliant groups were observed at baseline and at discharge from CR. At the end of the follow-up, statistical differences across groups were not found for body mass or body mass index, but increases in VO2peak (+3.6 vs. –0.6 ml/kg·min, P = 0.004) and oxygen pulse (+1.5 vs. +0.2 ml/bpm, P = .03) were greater in compliant than noncompliant group.

Conclusions:

Self-regulated exercising following CR discharge seems to be effective to maintain gains in exercise capacity acquired during supervised center-based programs.

Restricted access

Humberto José Gomes Silva, Lars Bo Andersen, Mara Cristina Lofrano-Prado, Mauro V.G. Barros, Ismael Fortes Freitas Jr., James Hill and Wagner Luiz do Prado

Background:

It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity (HIT) vs. low-intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents.

Methods:

Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7 ± 1.3 years, BMI: 34.3 ± 4.1kg/m2) participated this study either HIT (corresponding to ventilatory threshold I; N = 20) or LIT (20% below ventilatory threshold I; N = 23) for 12 weeks. All sessions were isocaloric (350 kcal). All participants received the same nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile, and glucose at baseline and after 12 weeks. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (z scores sum).

Results:

Body mass, Body Mass Index, fatness, and WC were improved (P < .001) in both groups. The sum of z scores (WC + TC + glucose-fitness-HDL) improved in both HIT (12 weeks = −2.16 SD; Cohen’s d = .45) and LIT (12 weeks = −2.13 SD; Cohen’s d = .60) without groups differences. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in WC (r = −.48; P = .003).

Conclusion:

HIT does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents.

Restricted access

Melissa Bopp, Sara Wilcox, Marilyn Laken, Steven P. Hooker, Deborah Parra-Medina, Ruth Saunders, Kimberly Butler, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Lottie McClorin

Background:

Physical activity (PA) participation offers many benefits especially among ethnic groups that experience health disparities. Partnering with faith-based organizations allows for a more culturally tailored approach to changing health behaviors.

Methods:

8 Steps to Fitness was a faith-based behavior-change intervention promoting PA among members of African American churches. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine differences between the intervention group (n=72) and comparison group (n = 74). Health (resting blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, fasting blood glucose), psycho-social (PA self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment, self-regulation, depression), and behavioral variables (PA, diet) were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Repeated measures ANCOVAs tested changes across time between groups.

Results:

At 3-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in body mass index, waist circumference and social support than the control group. At 6-months, the intervention group showed significantly more favorable changes in hip circumference, waist to hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and depressive symptoms. There was notable attrition from both the intervention (36%) and the comparison group (58%).

Conclusions:

This study was conducted in a real-world setting, and provided insight into how to deliver a culturally-tailored PA intervention program for African Americans with a potential for dissemination.

Restricted access

Annie Fex, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Marie-Eve Filion, Antony D. Karelis and Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre

Objectives:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

Methods:

Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Results:

After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P < .05). In addition, we noted a lower tendency for leg fat mass (P = .06) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .05) as well as a higher tendency for total energy expenditure (P = .06) after the intervention.

Conclusions:

The current study indicates that elliptical HIIT seems to improve metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

Restricted access

Jared P. Reis, Caroline A. Macera, Barbara E. Ainsworth and Deborah A. Hipp

Background:

Walking for exercise is a popular leisure-time activity pursuit among US adults; however, little information is available about total daily walking.

Methods:

A nationally representative random sample of 10,461 US adults (4438 men and 6023 women) was surveyed via telephone between 2002 and 2003. Weekly frequency and daily duration of walking for all purposes in bouts of at least 10 min were measured. Regular walking was defined as walking ≥5 d/wk, ≥30 min/d.

Results:

Overall, 49% of adults (51% of men and 47% of women) were regular walkers, and approximately 17% reported no walking. Regular walking was significantly higher in employed adults and decreased with increasing age in women and body mass index in both sexes. Total walking was significantly higher among adults with lower levels of educational attainment and did not vary significantly by race/ethnicity.

Conclusions:

These results affirm the popularity of walking in the United States.

Restricted access

Laura Capranica, Monica Tiberi, Francesco Figura and Wayne H. Osness

This study compared functional fitness scores of American and Italian older adults on the AAHPERD test battery for adults over 60 years old. Sedentary participants (N = 186, age 60–79 years) undertook the 6 AAHPERD test items: Between American and Italian men, no statistically significant difference was found for coordination and endurance. American men scored better on flexibility and strength, whereas Italian men scored better on body mass index (BMI) and agility. Between American and Italian women, no statistically significant difference was found for BMI and agility. American women scored better on coordination and endurance, whereas Italian women scored better on flexibility and strength. The data suggest that the AAHPERD test battery is an appropriate tool for assessing and comparing functional fitness levels of older adults in different societies.

Restricted access

Paula C. Fletcher and John P. Hirdes

This paper examines factors associated with physical activity and health status among the 796 subjects aged 55 and older who appear in both the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS) and The Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (CSWB), a longitudinal follow-up to the CFS. The CSWB can provide information about changes in physical activity patterns and health between 1981 and 1988. Although nonresponse to the overall survey was low, item nonresponse was problematic in some cases. Approximately 50% of the sample were not assessed on physical fitness measures (e.g., body mass index), while 14% and 38% refused to answer questions concerning alcohol consumption and family income, respectively. Of specific interest are the relationships of physical activity levels and self-rated health with socio-economic status, age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and measures of body composition.

Restricted access

Joanne Kraenzle Schneider

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior and physiological indicators of exercise behavior (body composition and oxygen consumption measures) in older women. Three self-report exercise behavior instruments were administered in counterbalanced order. Body mass index and sums of skinfold thicknesses were used as measures of body composition. Oxygen consumption was measured using a metabolic cart during a treadmill test while women walked at approximately 70% of their heart rate reserve. Fifty-nine women participated (68.7 ± 6.0 years). Results showed that self-reported exercise behavior was moderately related to body composition measures. However, predicted maximal oxygen consumption was only weakly related to self-reported exercise behavior.

Restricted access

Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Eric D.B. Goulet and Isabelle J. Dionne

Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) attenuates the menopause-associated alterations in body composition. It is not known, however, whether this effect is a result of a concomitant increase in energy expenditure. The authors examined whether women submitted to a long-term HRT treatment presented greater energy expenditure than women who had never used HRT. We compared 13 postmenopausal women using HRT (>1 yr) with 13 age- (±2 yr) and body-mass-index-matched (BMI; ±1.5kg/m2) postmenopausal women not using HRT. Resting energy expenditure (REE; indirect calorimetry), body composition, and daily (DEE) and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure (accelerometry) were obtained. Although BMI, fat mass, fat-free mass, DEE, and PAEE were similar between groups, the HRT group displayed a significantly greater REE than the no-HRT group (Δ +222 kcal/day). In conclusion, the authors observed that a long-term treatment with HRT is associated with a greater REE in postmenopausal women. These results need to be confirmed.

Restricted access

Elisa A. Marques, Andreia Isabel Pizarro, Jorge Mota and Maria Paula Santos

Background:

The exact relation between objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and independent mobility in children has yet to be fully defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether independent mobility is associated with level of MVPA.

Methods:

Data were collected from 9 middle schools in Porto (Portugal) area. A total of 636 children in the 6th grade (340 girls and 296 boys) with a mean age of 11.64 years old participated in the study. PA was measured in 636 participants using an accelerometer. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to assess the odds for belonging to quartiles of MVPA.

Results:

After controlling for age, gender, body mass index, meeting PA recommendations, and participation in structured exercise, the odds of having a higher level of MVPA when children have higher independent mobility increase through the MVPA quartiles.

Conclusions:

A positive associations were found between independent mobility and quartiles of physical activity.