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Alice K. Lindeman

Meeting the energy demands of ultraendurance cycling requires careful planning and monitoring of food and fluid intake. This case study presents the nutrient intake of a cyclist while training for and competing in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM). Carbohydrate accounted for 65% of the calories consumed during training (4,743 kcal), 75% during 24-hr races (10,343 kcal), and 78% during RAAM (8,429 kcal). Gastrointestinal complaints during RAAM included nausea, feeling of fullness, and abdominal distension. Although probably exacerbated by sleep deprivation, these problems were all diet related. Based on this experience, it appears that by controlling the carbohydrate concentration of beverages, limiting dietary fiber, and relying on carbohydrate as the primary energy source, one could both control gastrointestinal symptoms and promote optimal performance in training and in ultramarathon cycling.

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Barbara D. Eden and Peter J. Abernethy

The food and fluid intake of a male ultraendurance runner was recorded throughout a 1,005-km race completed over 9 days. The nutrient analysis showed an average daily energy intake of 25,000 kJ with 62% from carbohydrate, 27% from fat, and 11% from protein. Carbohydrate intake was estimated to be 16.8 g · kg1 · day1. The protein intake was estimated to be 2.9 g · kg1 · day1 and water intake to be 11 L per day. These figures are within the recommended levels for ultraendurance athletes (2, 10). Food and fluid were consumed in small amounts every 15 to 20 min to ensure maintenance of blood glucose levels and adequate hydration. This case study suggests that if the guidelines for prolonged exercise are followed, then athletes can successfully complete ultraendurance events.

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Emily A. Roper, Douglas J. Molnar and Craig A. Wrisberg

In the sport, physical activity, and aging literature, much attention has been given to the importance of physical activity and sport involvement for the elderly. Most of the literature, however, has focused on the continuity of physical activity among older adults. The purpose of this study was to extend the understanding of older sport participants by conducting a case study of Max Springer, a male, White master runner (88 years old). We assumed that continuity in sport would represent a primary adaptive strategy for coping with the aging process. In addition to two in-depth interviews with Max, the authors interviewed various other “participants” regarding their perceptions of Max as an older runner. From deductive analysis of the interview material, the following themes emerged as figural to Max’s experience as an older runner: tradition of always being physically active, I’m not an athlete, being of senior age, meaning and philosophy of running, and significance of social support.

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Nancy Clark

After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs at the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to eat well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

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Debra M. Vinci

This paper presents an overview of the Husky Sport Nutrition Program at the University of Washington. This program is a component of the Department of Intercollegiate Athletics Total Student–Athlete Program, an NCAA-sponsored CHAMPS/Life Skills Program that provides life skills assistance to student–athletes. Successful integration of a sport nutrition program requires an understanding of the athletic culture, physiological milestones, and life stressors faced by college athletes. The sport nutritionist functions as an educator, counselor, and administrator. Team presentations and individual nutrition counseling provide athletes with accurate information on healthy eating behaviors for optimal performance. For women's sports, a multidisciplinary team including the sport nutritionist, team physician, clinical psychologist, and athletic trainer work to prevent and treat eating disorders. Case studies are presented illustrating the breadth of nutrition-related issues faced by a sport nutritionist working with college athletes.

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Jessica M. Lutkenhouse

The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.

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Jennifer G. Walker, Kelly R. Evenson, William J. Davis, Philip Bors and Daniel A. Rodríguez

Background:

This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects.

Methods:

Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies.

Results:

Preparation: Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions: The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs: Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy: Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects: Consistent standards for wayfinding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety.

Conclusions:

Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives.

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Maria Francesca Piacentini and Romain Meeusen

Purpose:

This longitudinal case study evaluated the effectiveness of an online training-monitoring system to prevent nonfunctional overreaching (NFOR).

Methods:

A female master track and field athlete was followed by means of a daily online training diary (www.spartanova.com) and a weekly profile of mood state (POMS). The online diary consists of objective training data and subjective feelings reported on a 10-cm visual analog scale. Furthermore, parameters that quantify and summarize training and adaptation to training were calculated. The novelty consists in the inclusion of a specific measuring parameter tested to detect NFOR (OR score).

Results:

During track-season preparation, the athlete was facing some major personal changes, and extratraining stress factors increased. Despite the fact that training load (TL) did not increase, the or score showed a 222% and then a 997% increase compared with baseline. POMS showed a 167% increase in fatigue, a 38% decrease in vigor, a 32% increase in depression scores, and a total mood increase of 22%, with a 1-wk shift compared with the OR score. A 41% decrease in TL restored the OR score and POMS to baseline values within 10 d.

Conclusion:

The results demonstrate that immediate feedback obtained by “warning signals” to both athletes and coaches, based on individual baseline data, seems an optimal predictor of FOR/NFOR.

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Ana Anton-Solanas, Barry V. O’Neill, Tessa E. Morris and Joe Dunbar

Purpose:

To assess changes in body composition and monitor cognitive function, subjective well-being, and physiological stress, as measured by salivary hormones and markers of mucosal immunity, during an Antarctic expedition.

Methods:

A 36-y-old man (188.2 cm height, 94.5 kg body mass) took part in a world-record attempt. A total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and measurement of 8 skinfolds and 5 girths were performed before and after the expedition. In addition, daily subjective data were recorded (sleep quality, total hours of sleep, energy levels, perceived exertion, mood, muscle soreness, and muscle/joint pain) along with distance covered and hours of physical activity per day. As a measure of cognitive function, the athlete completed a computerized battery of tasks (Axon Sports Cognitive Priming Application) every third morning. Saliva samples were collected before, during, and after the expedition to determine salivary cortisol (sCort), testosterone (sT), alpha amylase (sAA), and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA).

Results:

The athlete lost 5.3 kg body mass and sum of 8 skinfolds decreased from 73 mm to 59 mm from preexpedition to postexpedition. Psychomotor speed declined over the course of the expedition. sT increased and sCort decreased throughout, and sAA and sIgA peaked toward the end of the expedition.

Conclusions:

This case study provides novel data about the physiological and cognitive impact of an Antarctic expedition. The findings may inform strategies for future expeditions, allowing individuals undertaking expeditions of this nature to better prepare for success.

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Gerasimos Terzis, Thomas Kyriazis, Giorgos Karampatsos and Giorgos Georgiadis

Purpose:

Although muscle mass and strength are thought to be closely related to throwing performance, there are few scientific data about these parameters in elite shot-putters. The purpose of this case report was to present longitudinal data for muscle strength and body composition in relation to performance of an elite male shot-putter.

Methods:

A male national champion with the best rotational shot-put performance of 20.36 m (in 2010) was followed from 2003 to 2011 (current age: 29 y). Data regarding body composition (dual X-ray absorptiometry), as well as 1-repetition-maximum muscle strength (bench press, squat, snatch) and rotational shot-put performance, were collected every February for the last 9 y, 4 wk before the national indoor championship event.

Results:

The athlete’s personal-best performances in squat, bench press, and snatch were 175 kg, 210 kg, and 112.5 kg, respectively. His peak total lean body mass was 92.4 kg, bone mineral density 1.55 g/cm2, and lowest body fat 12.9%. His shot-put performance over these 9 years was significantly correlated with 1-repetition-maximum squat strength (r = .93, P < .01), bench press (r = .87, P < .01), and snatch (r = .92, P < .01). In contrast, shot-put performance was not significantly correlated with any of the body-composition parameters.

Conclusions:

The results of this case study suggest that elite rotational shot-put performance may not be directly correlated with lean body mass. Instead, it seems that it is closely related with measures of muscle strength.