The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14–2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01–8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.
Thais R.S. Paulo, Sheilla Tribess, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Joilson Meneguci, Cristiane A. Martins, Ismael F. Freitas Jr., Vicente Romo-Perez and Jair S. Virtuoso Jr.
Nilam Ram, Joanna Starek and Jay Johnson
The impact of race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation on human cognition, affect, and behavior has been well documented in the psychology, sociology, and counseling literature. Sport and exercise psychology, however, has minimized the importance of these variables (Duda & Allison, 1990). The purpose of the current study was to determine how race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation have been addressed in the recent sport and exercise psychology literature. Duda and Allison’s previous research was replicated and extended by analyzing the content of 982 manuscripts published in JSEP, JASP, and TSP between 1987 and 2000. Overall, 19.86% of manuscripts included references to race/ethnicity and 1.22% included references to sexual orientation. Detailed results demonstrate that, despite an increase in the number of papers that include references to race and ethnicity, there has been no systematic attempt to include the experience of marginalized groups in the literature. Researchers and practitioners are encouraged to incorporate appropriate questions, reporting, and sensitivity with regard to race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation into their work.
Eva Pila, Angela Stamiris, Andree Castonguay and Catherine M. Sabiston
These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.
Alyce T. Barnes, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Clare E. Collins and Philip J. Morgan
The aim was to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention targeting mothers and daughters.
A randomized controlled trial of 48 primary school-aged girls and their 40 mothers were randomized to (i) Mothers And Daughters Exercising for Life (MADE4Life) (n = 21 mothers, n = 25 daughters) or (ii) wait-list control (n = 19 mothers, n = 23 daughters). The 8-week program involved 8 sessions; 25-minute separate mothers and daughters education sessions and 60-minutes PA together. Assessments were at baseline, postintervention and 3-month postintervention. Primary outcome measure was daughters’ moderateto-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometer). Secondary outcomes included accelerometer-assessed light/moderate/vigorous PA, BMI, waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behaviors and mothers’ self-reported PA, parenting measures, and cognitions. Intention-to-treat analysis used linear mixed models.
Recruitment and retention goals were exceeded. Attendance rates, program acceptability and satisfaction were high. There was no significant group-by-time effect for daughters’ %MVPA (–0.08; 95%CI –1.49, 1.33, d = –0.03) or other secondary outcomes for girls (postintervention range d = 0.01 to –0.46). Significant intervention effects were found for mothers’ %VPA (P = .04, d = 0.25) and role modeling (P = .02, d = 0.66).
MADE4Life was both feasible and acceptable. Although very small effect sizes were found for the daughters, significant changes were seen for mothers (d = 0.25 to 0.66). Future fully powered trials targeting PA in mothers and daughters is warranted.
Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Marco Duca, Athos Trecroci, Mattia Rapelli, Giampietro Alberti, John Komar and Pierpaolo Iodice
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have supported the relationship between physical exercise and cognition, 1 providing evidence of the beneficial effect of both chronic 2 – 4 and acute exercise 5 , 6 on cognitive functions. The most beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive performance has
David I. Anderson
“Motor Development as Foundation and Future for Developmental Psychology” ( Thelen, 2000a ). That agenda included 6 themes: multimodal perception and action, formal models and robotics, embodied cognition, neural bases of motor skill development, learning and plasticity, and cultural and individual
* Jacqueline H. Gillis * Karen King * 12 1980 2 4 311 328 10.1123/jsp.2.4.311 Mental Preparation Strategies, Cognitions, and Strength Performance Daniel Gould * Robert Weinberg * Allen Jackson * 12 1980 2 4 329 339 10.1123/jsp.2.4.329 Effect of Public and Private Efficacy Expectations on Competitive
Measuring Group Cohesion Jean-Philippe Heuzé * Paul Fontayne * 3 2002 24 1 42 67 10.1123/jsep.24.1.42 A Grounded Theory of Expert Cognition in Orienteering David W. Eccles * Susanne E. Walsh * David K. Ingledew * 3 2002 24 1 68 88 10.1123/jsep.24.1.68 Sport Psychologist’s Digest Sport Psychologist
.2017-0306 jsep.2017-0306 Team Action Imagery and Team Cognition: Imagery of Game Situations and Required Team Actions Promotes a Functional Structure in Players’ Representations of Team-Level Tactics Cornelia Frank * Gian-Luca Linstromberg * Linda Hennig * Thomas Heinen * Thomas Schack * 1 02
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
from adolescence to adulthood is generally marked by a decrease in physical activity. To date, research has primarily examined explicit physical activity cognitions to understand changes in physical activity during this transition (e.g., attitudes about exercise, confidence to self-manage exercise