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Katrina D. DuBose, Sandra Edwards, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Jared P. Reis and Martha L. Slattery

Background:

Historical physical activity (PA) questionnaires assess relationships between past PA and chronic diseases. The 4-Corner’s Historical Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ) was validated in 78 middle-age women.

Methods:

In 1996 and 1998, women kept PA records (PAR) for four consecutive days while wearing Caltrac accelerometers. In 2001, the same women recalled their past PA levels using the HPAQ. PA levels from the HPAQ were compared to PARs and the Caltrac. Race-adjusted Spearman correlations determined validity.

Results:

Low to modest correlations existed between PA (min/wk and MET-min/wk) from the HPAQ and PARs for moderate (r = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively), vigorous PA (r = 0.26 and 0.27, respectively; P < 0.05) and moderate-vigorous PA (r = 0.20 and 0.17, respectively). Moderate and moderate-vigorous, but not vigorous PA was positively related to energy expenditure expressed as kilocalories (r = 0.23, P < 0.05 and 0.22, −0.03, respectively) or PA volume (MET-min/wk) (r = 0.29, 0.29, P < 0.05 and 0.10, respectively).

Conclusion:

The HPAQ can produce valid estimates of women’s past moderate and vigorous PA levels.

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Luisa Aires, Pedro Silva, Gustavo Silva, Maria Paula Santos, José Carlos Ribeiro and Jorge Mota

Background:

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between body mass index (BMI), Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), and levels of physical activity (PA) from sedentary to very vigorous intensities, measured by accelerometry, in students from a middle and high school.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study included 111 children and adolescents, age 11 to 18 years. PA was assessed with an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days (1 minute epoch) using specific cut-points. PA components were derived using special written software (MAHUffe). CRF was assessed by maximal multistage 20m shuttle run. T-test was used to test differences between BMI groups, Pearson’s correlation, to analyze correlations between all variables and multinomial logistic regression, and to predict the value of BMI categories.

Results:

This paper provides evidence that BMI was inversely and significantly correlated with CRF. Only CRF was correlated with Vigorous and Very Vigorous PA levels and total amount of PA. Children with Overweight/Obesity were less likely to perform more laps than normal weight counterparts. The total amount or intensity level of PA did not show any influence on BMI level.

Conclusions:

Low CRF is strongly associated with obesity, which highlights the importance of increasing CRF for a protective effect even in youth. No associations were found for PA and BMI.

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Kathleen Simpson, Beth Parker, Jeffrey Capizzi, Paul Thompson, Priscilla Clarkson, Patty Freedson and Linda Shannon Pescatello

Background:

Little information exists regarding the psychometric properties of question 8 (Q8) of the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to assess exercise. Thus, we conducted 2 studies to assess the validity and test–retest reliability of Q8 among adults.

Methods:

Study 1 participants (n = 419) were 44.1 ± 16.1 years of age. Validity was determined by comparing self-reported hr·d−1 in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) and MET-hr·wk−1 on Q8 at baseline to accelerometer and health/fitness measurements using Spearman rank-order correlations. Study 2 participants (n = 217) were 44.7 ± 16.3 years of age and completed Q8 at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Test–retest reliability was determined using repeated measures analysis of covariance, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and standard error of the measurement (SEM).

Results:

Q8 displayed good criterion validity compared with accelerometer measurements (r = .102 to .200, P < .05) and predictive validity compared with health/fitness measurements (r = –.272 to .203, P < .05). No differences were observed in self-reported hr·d−1 in any of the PA categories at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (ICC: 0.49 to 0.68; SEM: 1.0 to 2.0; P > .05), indicating good reliability.

Conclusion:

Q8 demonstrates adequate criterion validity, acceptable predictive validity, and satisfactory test–retest reliability and can be used in conjunction with other components of the PPAQ to provide a complete representation of exercise.

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Jack L. Nasar and Christopher H. Holloman

Background:

The research sought to find the salient perceived characteristics of playgrounds for African-American children and their parents, and to test effects of changes in those characteristics on playground choice.

Methods:

Thirty-one African-American children and their parents sorted 15 photographs of playgrounds for similarity. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling on the similarity scores and correlations between the resulting dimensions and judged characteristics of each playground revealed salient perceived characteristics. Study 2 had 40 African-American children and their parents view pairs of photographs, manipulated on the salient characteristics, and pick the one to play on (child question) or for the child to play on (parent question). A third study inventoried and observed children’s activities in 14 playgrounds.

Results:

Study 1 found seats, fence, playground type, and softness of surface as salient perceived characteristics of the playground. Study 2 found that participants were more likely to pick playgrounds with equipment and playgrounds with a softer surface. Study 3 found higher levels of physical activity for playground settings with equipment.

Conclusions:

The findings confirm correlational findings on the desirability of equipment and safety. Communities need to test the effects of changes in playgrounds.

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James J. Annesi

The accuracy of athletes in recalling precompetition anxiety was tested using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Young and adolescent female gymnastics and field hockey athletes (N = 34) were tested one hour precompetition and again 48 hours postcompetition (with instructions to recall precompetition feelings). Correlations were significantly different (weaker) than when the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used within the same time frame (Harger & Raglin, 1994). After establishing individual “zones” around actual state anxiety values, based on individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) theory (Hanin, 1980, 1986, 1989), it was determined that the weaker correlations in the present study translated into enough incorrect in-zone/out-of-zone assessments that two-day recall, using the CSAI-2, may not be useful for IZOF research and practice. The necessity to further this research with other samples and sports was emphasized. The possibility of using alternate methods was discussed in an effort to provide accurate, minimally intrusive state anxiety measurement which may, ultimately, guide practitioners in effective intervention design through the use of IZOF, multidimensional anxiety theory, and the specific-effects (matching) hypothesis.

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Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Stuart J.H. Biddle

The aim of the present study was to examine relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behavior across studies using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in a physical activity context. Meta-analytic techniques were used to correct the correlations between the TRA/TPB constructs for statistical artifacts across 72 studies, and path analyses were conducted to examine the pattern of relationships among the variables. Results demonstrated that the TRA and TPB both exhibited good fit with the corrected correlation matrices, but the TPB accounted for more variance in physical activity intentions and behavior. In addition, self-efficacy explained unique variance in intention, and the inclusion of past behavior in the model resulted in the attenuation of the intention-behavior, attitude-intention, self-efficacy-intention, and self-efficacy-behavior relationships. There was some evidence that the study relationships were moderated by attitude-intention strength and age, but there was a lack of homogeneity in the moderator groups. It was concluded that the major relationships of the TRA/TPB were supported in this quantitative integration of the physical activity literature, and the inclusion of self-efficacy and past behavior are important additions to the model.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill and Leah E. Robinson

Background:

We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.

Method:

Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).

Results:

The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.

Conclusions::

Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Larissa W. Zanella and E. Kipling Webster

The Test of Gross Motor Development is used to identify children’s level of motor proficiency, specifically to detect motor delays. This study aimed to translate the TGMD-3 items and assess reliability and content and construct validity for the TGMD-3 in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation was used to generate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the TGMD-3. The validation process involved 33 professionals and 597 Brazilian children (ages 3–10) from the five main geographic regions of Brazil. The results confirmed language clarity and pertinence, as well as face validity of the TGMD-3. High intrarater (.60 to .90) and interrater (.85 to .99) reliability was evident, and test-retest temporal stability was confirmed (locomotor .93; ball skills .81). Adequate internal consistency was present for the skills-to-test and subtests correlations (TGMD-3-BR: α .74; locomotor skills: α .63; ball skills: α .76) and performance-criteria-to-test and -subtest correlations (TGMD-3: α .93; locomotor skills: .90; ball skills: .88). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor model (RMSEA = .04, 90% confidence interval: .03 to .05; CFI = .94; NFI = .91; TLI = .92; GFI = .94; AGFI = .92). The TGMD-3 is a valid and reliable instrument for Brazilian children.

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Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb, Brent Hutto, Julian A. Reed and Steven P. Hooker

Purpose:

This study assessed test-retest reliability of an interviewer-administered trail survey.

Methods:

An intercept survey was conducted with adults using 2 paved trails in Indiana and South Carolina (N = 295; mean age = 46.9 ± 18 y). The survey included items on frequency and duration of trail use for recreation and transportation, other patterns of trail use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fifty-five adults completed the survey twice (2−16 d apart; mean = 7.4 ± 2.6 d). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Kappa coefficients, and percent agreement.

Results:

Kappa coefficients and percent agreement for 9 categorical items ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 and from 64.0% to 98.2%, respectively. Among these items, the lowest Kappas were found for perceived safety (0.65) and reported duration of visits for recreational purposes (0.67). Spearman rank correlation coefficients for travel distance to and on the trail and frequency of trail use during the past 7 days and past 4 weeks ranged from 0.62 to 0.93.

Conclusion:

Though further assessments of this survey with different populations and types of trails may be warranted, its overall high reliability indicates it can be used by researchers and practitioners in its current form.

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Gregory J. Norman, Nicole Wagner, Kevin Patrick, Karen J. Calfas and James F. Sallis

Background:

Sedentary behavior is related to obesity, but measures of sedentary behaviors are lacking for adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) among overweight adults.

Methods:

Participants were 49 adults for the 2 week test-retest reliability study (67% female, 53% white, mean age = 20) and 401 overweight women (mean age = 41, 61% white) and 441 overweight men (mean age = 44, 81% white) for the validity study. The SBQ consisted of reports of time spent in 9 sedentary behaviors. Outcomes for validity included accelerometer measured inactivity, sitting time (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and BMI. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed reliability and partial correlations assessed validity.

Results:

ICCs were acceptable for all items and the total scale (range = .51–.93). For men, there were significant relationships of SBQ items with IPAQ sitting time and BMI. For women, there were relationships between the SBQ and accelerometer inactivity minutes, IPAQ sitting time, and BMI.

Conclusions:

The SBQ has acceptable measurement properties for use among overweight adults. Specific measures of sedentary behavior should be included in studies and population surveillance.