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James F. Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan A. Carlson, Gregory J. Norman, Brian E. Saelens, Nefertiti Durant and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

Neighborhood environment attributes of walkability and access to recreation facilities have been related to physical activity and weight status, but most self-report environment measures are lengthy. The 17-item PANES (Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale) was developed to be comprehensive but brief enough for use in multipurpose surveys. The current study evaluated test-retest and alternate-form reliability of PANES items compared with multi-item subscales from the longer NEWS-A (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated).

Methods:

Participants were 291 adults recruited from neighborhoods that varied in walkability in 3 US cities. Surveys were completed twice with a 27-day interval.

Results:

Test-retest ICCs for PANES items ranged from .52 to .88. Spearman correlations for the PANES single item vs NEWS-A subscale comparisons ranged from .27 to .81 (all P < .01).

Conclusions:

PANES items related to land use mix, residential density, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetic qualities, and safety from traffic and crime were supported by correlations with NEWS-A subscales. Access to recreation facilities and street connectivity items were not supported. The brevity of PANES allows items to be included in studies or surveillance systems to expand knowledge about neighborhood environments.

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Leilani Madrigal, Sharon Hamill and Diane L. Gill

Mental Toughness (MT), which refers to an inner focus and commitment to rise above challenges when facing adversity, is viewed as one of the most important psychological attributes in determining success in sport. However, there is little consensus on key components of MT, and existing measures vary greatly while focusing on elite athletes. The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of MT for use with college athletes. Collegiate and noncollegiate athletes (N = 271) completed the original 54-item Mental Toughness Scale (MTS) in study 1. Factor analysis (PCA) results reduced the scale to an 11-item scale, with good reliability and validity as demonstrated by its positive correlations with self-esteem and flow. A second study of college basketball players (N = 143) was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the MTS. Study 2 demonstrated convergent, divergent and criterion validity through correlations with related measures, and a CFA provided moderate support for the MTS as a one-dimensional measure of mental toughness in sport.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill and Leah E. Robinson

Background:

We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.

Method:

Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).

Results:

The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.

Conclusions::

Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.

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Susan A. McDonald and Charles J. Hardy

This study examined the affective response pattern of severely injured athletes. Five athletes from an NCAA Division I university athletic program were followed within 24 hours of injury for 4 weeks. On two nonconsecutive days a week at the same time and place, the athletes completed the Profile of Mood States and indicated their perceived percent rehabilitation. In addition, at the first meeting the athletes were given the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and a demographic data sheet. At the final meeting the athletes completed an open-ended questionnaire designed to explore affective, cognitive, and behavioral reflections about rehabilitation. ANOVA indicated that affect significantly changed (p<.05) across the 4 week period. Post hoc analyses indicated that this change fits a two-stage process: Stage 1, Times 1−2; Stage 2, Times 3−8, with the two stages being significantly different from each other. The correlation between perceived rehabilitation and total mood disturbance was r=−.69, p<.0001. Correlations for each affective measure and perceived rehabilitation indicated that affective patterns of the rehabilitating athlete were highly related to the perception of rehabilitation, with negative affect diminishing and positive affect increasing as perceived rehabilitation increased.

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Lydia Kwak, Maria Hagströmer and Michael Sjostrom

Background:

To be able to draw any conclusions regarding the health effects of occupational physical activity (OPA), more information is needed regarding valid measures to assess OPA. Aims were to compare OPA as assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long version (IPAQ-L) with OPA assessed with an accelerometer and to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA.

Methods:

Working adults (n = 441; mean age = 49.4 yrs; 44% males) wore an accelerometer for 7 days in free-living situations and completed the IPAQ-L. Comparisons were made between IPAQ-L-work and accelerometer data limited to working time (Moderate and Vigorous PA (accelerometer-MVPA-work) and average intensity). Subgroup analyses were performed.

Results:

Spearman correlation was r = .46 (P < .01) between IPAQ-L-work and accelerometer-MVPA-work. Correlations ranged from r = .27 to r = .55 in respectively obese and overweight subjects. The contribution of IPAQ-L-work to IPAQ-total was 24.7%.

Conclusions:

The IPAQ-L work domain is a moderately good measure of time spent on MVPA at work and can be used to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA. This study provides valuable information regarding the use of the IPAQ-L in assessing work domain specific PA, and underscores the importance of assessing OPA, as it can contribute for a substantial part to total PA.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Larissa W. Zanella and E. Kipling Webster

The Test of Gross Motor Development is used to identify children’s level of motor proficiency, specifically to detect motor delays. This study aimed to translate the TGMD-3 items and assess reliability and content and construct validity for the TGMD-3 in Brazil. A cross-cultural translation was used to generate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the TGMD-3. The validation process involved 33 professionals and 597 Brazilian children (ages 3–10) from the five main geographic regions of Brazil. The results confirmed language clarity and pertinence, as well as face validity of the TGMD-3. High intrarater (.60 to .90) and interrater (.85 to .99) reliability was evident, and test-retest temporal stability was confirmed (locomotor .93; ball skills .81). Adequate internal consistency was present for the skills-to-test and subtests correlations (TGMD-3-BR: α .74; locomotor skills: α .63; ball skills: α .76) and performance-criteria-to-test and -subtest correlations (TGMD-3: α .93; locomotor skills: .90; ball skills: .88). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of a two-factor model (RMSEA = .04, 90% confidence interval: .03 to .05; CFI = .94; NFI = .91; TLI = .92; GFI = .94; AGFI = .92). The TGMD-3 is a valid and reliable instrument for Brazilian children.

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Kathy Ruble, Susan Scarvalone, Lisa Gallicchio, Catherine Davis and Diane Wells

Background:

: Inadequate physical activity (PA) in childhood cancer survivors may lead to compromised health outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and effect of a PA intervention in childhood cancer survivors ages 8–12 who report < 1 hour of moderate-to-vigorous physical (MVPA) per day.

Methods:

Twenty survivors were randomized to a 6-month group PA intervention or to a control group. A pre/post measure of MVPA was completed by all participants, and a pre/post measure of self-efficacy was completed by the intervention group. Analysis included measures of feasibility, change in percentage of awake time spent in MVPA, self-efficacy scores, and correlations in MVPA and self-efficacy.

Results:

All feasibility parameters were confirmed. Increases in percent of awake time spent in MVPA were seen in 67% of the intervention group and 14% of the control group. A medium effect size (r = 0.55) was calculated for the correlation between change in MVPA and change in total self-efficacy scores; the largest effect size (r = 0.62) was found for the subscale for adequacy.

Conclusions:

Increases in MVPA can be seen in childhood cancer survivors who participate in a group intervention that includes support of self-efficacy.

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Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb, Brent Hutto, Julian A. Reed and Steven P. Hooker

Purpose:

This study assessed test-retest reliability of an interviewer-administered trail survey.

Methods:

An intercept survey was conducted with adults using 2 paved trails in Indiana and South Carolina (N = 295; mean age = 46.9 ± 18 y). The survey included items on frequency and duration of trail use for recreation and transportation, other patterns of trail use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fifty-five adults completed the survey twice (2−16 d apart; mean = 7.4 ± 2.6 d). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Kappa coefficients, and percent agreement.

Results:

Kappa coefficients and percent agreement for 9 categorical items ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 and from 64.0% to 98.2%, respectively. Among these items, the lowest Kappas were found for perceived safety (0.65) and reported duration of visits for recreational purposes (0.67). Spearman rank correlation coefficients for travel distance to and on the trail and frequency of trail use during the past 7 days and past 4 weeks ranged from 0.62 to 0.93.

Conclusion:

Though further assessments of this survey with different populations and types of trails may be warranted, its overall high reliability indicates it can be used by researchers and practitioners in its current form.

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Oanh T.H. Trinh, Nguyen Do Nguyen, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Michael J. Dibley and Adrian Bauman

Background:

The increasing prevalence of chronic lifestyle diseases in developing countries warrants reliable and valid surveillance of physical activity levels in the population. This study assesses the test-retest repeatability and criterion validity of the WHO-recommended Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in Vietnamese adults during the dry and wet seasons.

Methods:

In 2007 a representative sample of 169 adults (25-64 years) was recruited to determine the GPAQ reliability and validity. GPAQ assesses time and intensity of physical activities spent during a usual week. To assess short and long term reliability, participants completed the GPAQ twice during the dry season 2 weeks apart and again 2 months later during the wet season. For validation purposes, participants wore an accelerometer during the 7 days before the first and last GPAQ assessments.

Results:

The total GPAQ score showed repeatability correlations of 0.69 after 2 weeks and of 0.55 after 2 months. Total GPAQ score and accelerometer data showed validity correlations of 0.34 and 0.20 in the dry and wet season, respectively. There was a difference in physical activity patterns between the dry and wet seasons.

Conclusions:

GPAQ is suitable for surveillance of physical activity among adults in Vietnam.

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Kathleen A. Csizma, Arno F. Wittig and K. Terry Schurr

Two samples were used to assess the sex linkage of a wide range of sports. One sample rated each of 68 sports (Matteo, 1984) on perceived acceptability and likelihood of participation for both females and males. The other judged the same 68 sports for masculinity-femininity and perceived complexity. Additionally, all 68 sports were compared to Metheny's (1965) physical activities criteria for perceived appropriateness for female participation. Results indicated that masculinity-femininity judgments were similar to those obtained by Matteo (1984) and that correlations of sex linkage of sport with acceptability and likelihood of participation were high, especially for judgments about female participants. Agreement between sex-type categories for sports and Metheny's (1965) criteria was most consistent for sports receiving either the most extreme masculine or most extreme feminine ratings. It appears that perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of sports are influenced by the gender of who actually participates in those sports as well as the physical activities involved in the sports. Finally, the correlation between mean masculinity-femininity and simplicity-complexity ratings was small and not significant. Indeed, those groups of sports categorized as masculine and feminine were rated as equally complex, and both groups were judged as significantly more complex than the sports classified as neutral. This finding negates Deaux's (1984) contention that feminine tasks are inevitably judged to be simpler than masculine tasks.