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Emma Renehan, Claudia Meyer, Rohan A. Elliott, Frances Batchelor, Catherine Said, Terry Haines and Dianne Goeman

Independence in Activities of Daily Living Scale [28] for level of independence and functional status in five daily activities—bathing, dressing, toileting, continence, and feeding. A score of 6 indicates full function, 4 indicates moderate impairment, and 2 or less indicates severe functional impairment; and

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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap

(including mobility and physical activity) and promote autonomy, independence, health, and wellbeing in people with sight loss. The main focus of this pathway is medical and functional assessment and intervention, with little reference to psychological needs. While emotional support is highlighted as the

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Laura A. Prieto, Justin A. Haegele and Luis Columna

remaining studies investigated personal and social development, participant’s functioning and psychosocial adjustments, and self-esteem used questionnaires (The World Health Organization Disability Assessment, Functional Independence Measure, Janis–Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale, Performance Indicators

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

For adults aged 65 years and older, physical function is a strong predictor of subsequent disability and loss of independence ( Hirvensalo, Rantanen, & Heikkinen, 2000 ; Newman et al., 2006 ). Older adults with mobility disability have higher rates of hospitalization, depression, morbidity, and

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José Machado Filho, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo Machado, Hirofumi Tanaka and Rodrigo Ferrari

adults are faced with the loss of functional independence. Among the neuromuscular parameters associated with functional independence, the development of muscular power is a strong predictor of functional status in the older population ( Foldvari et al., 2000 ; Reid & Fielding, 2012 ). Muscle power

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Thaís Reichert, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Natália Carvalho Bagatini, Nicole Monticelli Simmer, Andressa Pellegrini Meinerz, Bruna Machado Barroso, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Aging is associated with a decline in one of the main functions of the organism: the capacity to produce force. 1 – 5 This process is extremely relevant to the older population because low levels of muscle strength are associated with a loss of mobility and functional independence, which make

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Anna C. Severin, Brendan J. Burkett, Mark R. McKean, Aaron N. Wiegand and Mark G.L. Sayers

A key determinant of individuals’ quality of life (QoL) is their ability to maintain functional independence and perform everyday tasks without pain ( Katsura et al., 2010 ). Unfortunately, the aging process may threaten these abilities because it typically decreases muscle strength, muscle power

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Niranjan Chakrabhavi and Varadhan SKM

participants who volunteered for the study. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. References 1. Häger-Ross C , Schieber MH . Quantifying the independence of human finger movements: comparisons of digits, hands, and movement frequencies . J Neurosci . 2000 ; 20 ( 22 ): 8542 – 8550

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João Martins, Adilson Marques, Nuno Loureiro, Francisco Carreiro da Costa, José Diniz and Margarida Gaspar de Matos

independent samples and chi-square test of independence were used. Student’s t test and chi-square test of independence were also used to assess MVPA in the last 7 days and MVPA prevalence among younger and older adolescent girls from the same generation but from different survey waves (generation 1

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Henk Erik Meier and Cosima von Uechtriz

-likelihood under the independence model information criterion (QIC), as proposed by Pan ( 2001 ). According to the estimates, the correlation structure for the within-group correlation was independent. Furthermore, the QIC u was used to select the best model ( Hardin & Hilbe, 2013 , p. 210). The estimates