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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

b013e3182439613 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182439613 Bjørnsen , T. , Salvesen , S. , Berntsen , S. , Hetlelid , K.J. , Stea , T.H. , Lohne-Seiler , H. , … Paulsen , G. ( 2016 ). Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

.g., improve lean body mass, reduce fat) and many AAS users conduct their own risk-benefit analyses, to the extent that the cosmetic benefits of AAS appear to outweigh the negative health risks ( Kanayama & Pope, 2018 ). In contrast to recreational drugs (e.g., narcotics) typically encountered during adolescence

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, 151 – 158 . PubMed ID: 20388497 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 Garthe , I. , Raastad , T. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 2011 ). Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes . Applied Physiology

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

certain performance data (percent body fat, vertical jump) saw the greatest significant improvements in the first year of eligibility, whilst others also made further improvements into the second year (agility, lean body mass, power index from the vertical jump). Of the performance data, only bench press

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

low lean body mass (typically 45 kg), a jockey’s total daily energy expenditure may be as low as 2,000 kcal/day ( Wilson et al., 2018 ). Prior reports suggest that jockeys have tended to rely on peers to obtain weight-making advice ( Dolan et al., 2011 ; Wilson et al., 2013b ) and often resort to

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

occur and contribute to overall weakness and functional decline ( Creditor, 1993 ; Kleinpell, Fletcher, & Jennings, 2008 ). Even in healthy older adults, prolonged bed rest results in substantial loss of lean body mass in the lower extremities, primarily as a result of skeletal muscle wasting

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Petter Fagerberg

graduated as rangers • The rest dropped out due to failing leadership evaluations and 13% dropped out due to medical reasons Note . TEI = total energy intake; EI = energy intake; BW = bodyweight; FM = fat mass; FFM = fat-free mass; E% = energy percentage; LBM=lean body mass; BMC = bone mineral content; IGF

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016 ). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults . Clinical Nutrition, 32 ( 5 ), 704 – 712 . doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 Editor . ( 2003 ). Corrigenda . Journal of Applied Physiology, 94 ( 4 ), 651