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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

certain performance data (percent body fat, vertical jump) saw the greatest significant improvements in the first year of eligibility, whilst others also made further improvements into the second year (agility, lean body mass, power index from the vertical jump). Of the performance data, only bench press

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

muscle and lean body mass (LBM), there is a general increase in adiposity with age. Thus, sports that require a high strength-to-mass ratio may be affected, to a greater extent, with age. The age of peak performance in athletics is relatively stable across sport disciplines and generally occurs in early

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, 151 – 158 . PubMed ID: 20388497 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 Garthe , I. , Raastad , T. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 2011 ). Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes . Applied Physiology

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

normalized to body weight, but only 3.6% smaller when area was normalized to lean body mass ( Anderson et al., 2001 ) These results are similar to bone and tendon where greater size and strength were more strongly correlated with muscle mass than height, weight, fat mass, total mass, or BMI ( Culvenor et

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Petter Fagerberg

graduated as rangers • The rest dropped out due to failing leadership evaluations and 13% dropped out due to medical reasons Note . TEI = total energy intake; EI = energy intake; BW = bodyweight; FM = fat mass; FFM = fat-free mass; E% = energy percentage; LBM=lean body mass; BMC = bone mineral content; IGF

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

low lean body mass (typically 45 kg), a jockey’s total daily energy expenditure may be as low as 2,000 kcal/day ( Wilson et al., 2018 ). Prior reports suggest that jockeys have tended to rely on peers to obtain weight-making advice ( Dolan et al., 2011 ; Wilson et al., 2013b ) and often resort to

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

occur and contribute to overall weakness and functional decline ( Creditor, 1993 ; Kleinpell, Fletcher, & Jennings, 2008 ). Even in healthy older adults, prolonged bed rest results in substantial loss of lean body mass in the lower extremities, primarily as a result of skeletal muscle wasting

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults . Clinical Nutrition, 32 ( 5 ), 704 – 712 . doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 Editor . ( 2003 ). Corrigenda . Journal of Applied Physiology, 94 ( 4 ), 651

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016 ). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and