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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387

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Petter Fagerberg

graduated as rangers • The rest dropped out due to failing leadership evaluations and 13% dropped out due to medical reasons Note . TEI = total energy intake; EI = energy intake; BW = bodyweight; FM = fat mass; FFM = fat-free mass; E% = energy percentage; LBM=lean body mass; BMC = bone mineral content; IGF

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016 ). American College of Sports Medicine joint position statement. Nutrition and

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

). Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults . Clinical Nutrition, 32 ( 5 ), 704 – 712 . doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.011 Editor . ( 2003 ). Corrigenda . Journal of Applied Physiology, 94 ( 4 ), 651

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

occur and contribute to overall weakness and functional decline ( Creditor, 1993 ; Kleinpell, Fletcher, & Jennings, 2008 ). Even in healthy older adults, prolonged bed rest results in substantial loss of lean body mass in the lower extremities, primarily as a result of skeletal muscle wasting

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

low lean body mass (typically 45 kg), a jockey’s total daily energy expenditure may be as low as 2,000 kcal/day ( Wilson et al., 2018 ). Prior reports suggest that jockeys have tended to rely on peers to obtain weight-making advice ( Dolan et al., 2011 ; Wilson et al., 2013b ) and often resort to

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

SSG or CST was performed 3×40 min/week over 10 months. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were used to determine areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and lean body mass (LBM). Flamingo balance, standing long jump and 20-m sprint tests were used to

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mass (11.4kg-6.5kg). Lean body mass remained constant (54.5-55.0kg) and RMR was generally stable (1710 ± 77-1602 ± 75kcal.day-1) eliciting minimal adaptive thermogenesis. The final 1.8kg of BM loss (2.8%) was achieved 24 hours prior to weigh in utilising active/passive dehydration methods. Despite LEA

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

recovery • Increase positive mood state Nutrition • Appropriate energy and micronutrient intake to support body composition goals, including increase in lean body mass and loss of excess body fat • General support for training and recovery between training sessions, including strategic timing of intake