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Chelsey M. Thul, Marla E. Eisenberg, Nicole Larson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

Background:

Little is known about the physical activity patterns of Somali adolescents. This study compared time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participation in specific physical activities among Somali, other Non-Hispanic black and white adolescents.

Methods:

A subsample of 1,268 adolescents (mean age= 14.6) who completed surveys as part of the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study was included in analyses. Gender-stratified linear and logistic regressions, controlling for body mass index and demographic characteristics, were conducted to estimate mean weekly hours of self-reported MVPA and mean weekly hours and prevalence of engagement in each of 26 physical activities assessed by ethnic/racial group.

Results:

Somali girls had lower mean MVPA hours than their peers; however, no differences were found for Somali boys. Involvement in most activities was similar for Somali and other groups, but some differences were observed. For example, Somali youth were more likely to play soccer than their same-sex other black peers (boys: 52.4% vs. 20.4%; girls: 34.6% vs. 14.6%; P < .05). Somali girls also engaged in more hours per week of soccer than their black or white peers.

Conclusions:

Activities for which Somali youth indicated higher involvement may be particularly relevant for culturally-tailored physical activity programming.

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Kwok Ng, Pauli Rintala, Jorma Tynjälä, Raili Välimaa, Jari Villberg, Sami Kokko and Lasse Kannas

Background:

Adolescents’ physical activity level is a major source of concern. For adolescents with long-term illnesses or disabilities (LTID), being physically active can prevent secondary conditions. This is one of the first studies reporting trends in physical activity of adolescents with LTID in relation to gender, age, and sports club membership.

Methods:

Data were collected from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children study in Finland during 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014. In 13- and 15-year-olds (N = 2206), 17.1% reported having LTID. Daily physical activity recall was the dependent variable. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted eparately for sports club members (n = 936) and nonmembers (n = 1270).

Results:

The proportion of physically active adolescents with LTID in 2014 was higher than in 2002 for girls (15.6% vs 8.7%) and boys (26.6% vs 13.0%). Girl sports club members were 2 times more likely to be physically active in 2014 than in 2002. The largest trend between 2014 and 2002 was among boy nonmembers (odds ratio: 4.62, 95% confidence interval, 2.02–10.58).

Conclusions:

More adolescents with LTID took part in daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in 2014 than in 2002; however, physical activity levels still remain low. Sports club membership was similar to that of the general population.

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Tao Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Takanori Honda and Shuzo Kumagai

Background:

This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.

Results:

After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00–1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65–0.99), respectively.

Conclusions:

This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.

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Mark Lemstra, Marla Rogers, Adam Thompson and John Moraros

Background:

Youth in Canada age 5−17 years require a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (PA) everyday. Regrettably, there are no published studies on levels of PA within on-reserve First Nations youth in Canada that use validated surveys. The objective was to determine what percentage of Saskatoon Tribal Council (STC) First Nations on-reserve youth met the Canadian Society for Exercise and Physiology’s (CSEP) definition for being physically active, and what influences are associated with meeting this standard.

Methods:

Students in grades 5−8 within the STC were asked to complete a youth health survey.

Results:

Only 7.4% of STC youth met CSEP’s PA standard. Male youth (13.9%) were more likely to meet the PA standard than female youth (4.1%). Having parents who watch youth participate and who provide transportation to classes, having enough equipment at home, having friends bike or walk to school, participating in physical activity headed by a coach or instructor, and participating in structured classes are associated with meeting the standard.

Conclusions:

The prevalence of meeting the PA standard among on-reserve First Nations youth is very low. More research is needed to identify independent risk indicators of being physically inactive.

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Haydn Jarrett, Liam Fitzgerald and Ash C. Routen

Background:

Currently, no studies have investigated interinstrument reliability of the ActiGraph (AG) GT3X+ in free-living conditions.

Methods:

Nineteen adults (11 males, 8 females; aged 36.8 ± 11.9 years) wore a pair of AG’s (one on each hip), during all waking hours for 1 day. Raw outputs were generated for total counts, steps, wear time and mean counts per minute. Intensity outputs were derived for time (minutes) spent in <moderate, moderate, vigorous, very vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Intraclass correlation (ICC), absolute percent difference (APD), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots, and paired t tests were used to evaluate reliability.

Results:

Interinstrument reliability was high (CV < 5%) for raw count and derived intensity outputs, except vigorous and very vigorous activity. ICC, CV, and APD values for vigorous and very vigorous were .97, 12.28, 17.36% and .98, 18.15, 25.67%, respectively. Amalgamating moderate, vigorous, and very vigorous into a single MVPA category reduced the CV and APD values to 2.85 and 4.02%, and increased the ICC value to .99. No significant differences were found between contralateral units for any outputs (P > .05).

Conclusion:

Reliability decreases beyond moderate intensities. MVPA displays superior interinstrument reliability than individual intensity categories. Research question permitting, reporting time in MVPA may maximize reliability.

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Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga and Jean-Philippe Chaput

Background:

Adolescents are recommended to achieve ≥ 60 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) and ≤2 h/day of screen time (ST). This study examined the relationships between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and adherence to PA and ST recommendations in a large sample of Canadian adolescents.

Methods:

This cross-sectional school-based survey included a representative sample of 9388 students in grades 7 to 12 across Ontario, Canada.

Results:

After adjustment for several confounding variables, results showed that male adolescents who use SNSs for fewer hours (≤ 1 h/day) had greater odds of adherence to PA and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently, while those who use it for more hours (≥ 3 h/day) had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation. Female adolescents who use SNSs for more hours had lower odds of adherence to the ST recommendation (use of SNSs ≥ 2 h/day) and to both PA and ST recommendations concurrently (use of SNSs ≥ 5 h/day).

Conclusions:

Heavy use of SNSs has a negative influence on the adherence to the ST recommendation in both males and females; however, infrequent use of SNSs was related to the adherence to the PA recommendation and concurrent adherence to both recommendations in males only.

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Ryan D. Burns, Timothy A. Brusseau and James C. Hannon

Background:

Optimal levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have been shown to improve health and academic outcomes in youth. Limited research has examined MVPA trajectories throughout a daily middle school physical education (PE) curriculum. The purpose of this study was to examine MVPA trajectories over a daily PE curriculum and the modifying effects of sex, body composition, and cardiorespiratory endurance.

Methods:

One hundred 7th- and 8th-grade students participated in daily PE lessons. There were 66 lessons throughout the semester. MVPA was monitored during each lesson using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. Students were classified into FITNESSGRAM Healthy Fitness Zones using estimated VO2 Max and Body Mass Index (BMI). A population averaged generalized estimating equation was employed to examine MVPA trajectories.

Results:

On average, students’ MVPA decreased over time (β = –0.35, P < .001). Poor student VO2max classification significantly modified the trajectories (β = –0.14, P < .001), however poor BMI classification did not have a modifying effect (β = 0.03, P = .158).

Conclusions:

MVPA decreased in daily PE over time and cardiorespiratory endurance significantly modified the trajectories. The results support that extra efforts have to be made by teachers and students to sustain MVPA behaviors over a semester.

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Oscar Mac Ananey, Brendan McLoughlin, Ann Leonard, Lewena Maher, Peter Gaffney, Gerard Boran and Vincent Maher

Background:

Several obesity related factors are reported to exacerbate premature arterial stiffening, including inactivity and metabolic disarray. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, arterial stiffness and adiposity using objective methods. To further explore the role of adiposity in this complex process, obesity associated anthropometric and humoral biomarkers were measured.

Methods:

Seventy-nine healthy, lifelong nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Habitual physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] was measured using tonometry. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedence. Adipose associated biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin, were also measured.

Results:

Sedentary time was significantly associated with AIx (r = 0.38, P < .001), PWV (r = 0.33, P < .01), body fat composition (r = 0.40, P < .001) and age (r = 0.30, P < .01). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely correlated with AIx (r = –0.28, P < .05), body fat composition (r = –0.30, P < .01), postprandial insulin (r = –0.35, P < .01), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = –0.28, P < .05). MVPA, body fat composition, and postprandial insulin remained independent predictors of AIx but not PWV.

Conclusion:

The more time healthy individuals spend being sedentary, the greater their body fat and arterial stiffness. Conversely higher activity levels are associated with reduced body fat and less arterial stiffness.

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Karen Martin, Alexandra Bremner, Jo Salmon, Michael Rosenberg and Billie Giles-Corti

Background:

The objective of this study was to develop a multidomain model to identify key characteristics of the primary school environment associated with children’s physical activity (PA) during class-time.

Methods:

Accelerometers were used to calculate time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class-time (CMVPA) of 408 sixth-grade children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 0.43 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth Western Australia. Child and staff self-report instruments and a school physical environment scan administered by the research team were used to collect data about children and the class and school environments. Hierarchical modeling identified key variables associated with CMVPA.

Results:

The final multilevel model explained 49% of CMVPA. A physically active physical education (PE) coordinator, fitness sessions incorporated into PE sessions and either a trained PE specialist, classroom teacher or nobody coordinating PE in the school, rather than the deputy principal, were associated with higher CMVPA. The amount of grassed area per student and sporting apparatus on grass were also associated with higher CMVPA.

Conclusion:

These results highlight the relevance of the school’s sociocultural, policy and physical environments in supporting class-based PA. Interventions testing optimization of the school physical, sociocultural and policy environments to support physical activity are warranted.

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Christiana M.T. van Loo, Anthony D. Okely, Marijka Batterham, Tina Hinkley, Ulf Ekelund, Soren Brage, John J. Reilly, Gregory E. Peoples, Rachel Jones, Xanne Janssen and Dylan P. Cliff

Background:

To validate the activPAL3 algorithm for predicting metabolic equivalents (TAMETs) and classifying MVPA in 5- to 12-year-old children.

Methods:

Fifty-seven children (9.2 ± 2.3y, 49.1% boys) completed 14 activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA). Indirect calorimetry (IC) was used as the criterion measure. Analyses included equivalence testing, Bland-Altman procedures and area under the receiver operating curve (ROC-AUC).

Results:

At the group level, TAMETs were significantly equivalent to IC for handheld e-game, writing/coloring, and standing class activity (P < .05). Overall, TAMETs were overestimated for SB (7.9 ± 6.7%) and LPA (1.9 ± 20.2%) and underestimated for MVPA (27.7 ± 26.6%); however, classification accuracy of MVPA was good (ROC-AUC = 0.86). Limits of agreement were wide for all activities, indicating large individual error (SB: −27.6% to 44.7%; LPA: −47.1% to 51.0%; MVPA: −88.8% to 33.9%).

Conclusions:

TAMETs were accurate for some SB and standing, but were overestimated for overall SB and LPA, and underestimated for MVPA. Accuracy for classifying MVPA was, however, acceptable.