Search Results

You are looking at 141 - 150 of 1,068 items for :

  • "organization" x
  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
Clear All
Restricted access

Brianna Newland, Marlene A. Dixon and B. Christine Green

Background:

The purpose of this study was to provide recommendations to an organization trying to effectively implement nontraditional sport programming to reach a broader range of children and engage them in physical activity.

Methods:

This consultation-based qualitative study used data collected from 7 after-school sport program sites. Data were collected through participant observation and semistructured interviews with program instructors. The data were analyzed in 2 steps. First, descriptive coding was used to group observations and responses from each question, then pattern coding was used to find emerging themes. Researchers then compared both within and across program sites.

Results:

Researchers found that enjoyment, ability, and language influenced interactions; age-appropriateness, engagement, and curriculum design impacted curriculum; and instructor roles and ongoing mentoring impacted effectiveness of training/support. A fundamental disconnect was evident between the program vision and the instructors’ interpretation (and therefore, implementation) of the vision.

Conclusions:

Recommendations offered for practice include continued focus on curriculum design that can engage children at each level of development (grades K–5) and increased training and field support for instructors to ensure intended implementation of the programming.

Restricted access

Margaret J. Safrit

The measurement of physical fitness in children and youth has long been a topic of interest to physical educators, exercise scientists, health agencies, and private organizations dealing with sport and fitness. In recent years the focus on problems in measuring fitness has become more intense due to a number of factors, in particular the need for adequate surveillance studies and the perceived lack of fitness education in the schools. The purpose of this paper is to examine the scientific evidence that supports the use of measurement techniques for fitness evaluation. Physical fitness is described as a scientific construct that is multifaceted. A rationale is presented for the development of an operational definition of fitness that provides a basis for the identification of components of fitness to be measured. The latest versions of national fitness tests are described and compared, and evidence of the reliability and validity of the test batteries as well as individual subtests is summarized. Finally, several issues associated with fitness testing are discussed. These include the use of criterion referenced standards, the development of norms, and the use of fitness tests in a school setting. Although many improvements in tests and testing practices are noted, research is needed on a variety of problems.

Restricted access

Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Francisco Ruiz Juan and Paula Louise Bush

Background:

Worldwide, there is a growing concern with adolescents’ low levels of physical activity (PA). We used a comprehensive social ecological framework to uncover factors associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among adolescents from southeastern Spain.

Methods:

A population-based sample of 3249 adolescents aged 12–17 participated in a school-based survey in 2006. Potential correlates of participation in and level of LTPA were assessed through self-report. LTPA levels were also self-reported. We used gender-stratified logistic regression models to examine the associations among the variables of interest.

Results:

Consistent with a social ecological perspective, analyses revealed several factors, corresponding to different levels of organization (demographic, biological, psychological, behavioral, social) and behavioral settings (family, peer group, school), significantly associated with LTPA. Some of these factors varied as a function of gender and depending on whether the outcome considered was nonparticipation vs. participation in LTPA or high vs. low level of involvement among participants. Overall, the findings highlight the role of health-related participation motives, significant others’ attitudes toward PA, and grade in physical education as correlates of LTPA in this sample.

Conclusions:

Continued research is necessary to understand the complex interplay of factors and settings associated with adolescent LTPA and the role of gender.

Restricted access

Howard Poizner, Olga I. Fookson, Michail B. Berkinblit, Wayne Hening, Gregory Feldman and Sergei Adamovich

A three-dimensional tracking system was used to examine whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) would show characteristic performance deficits in an unconstrained pointing task. Five targets were presented in a pyramidal array in space to 11 individuals with mild to moderate PD and 8 age-matched controls. After the target was indicated, subjects closed their eyes and pointed to the remembered target locations without vision. Despite the absence of visual feedback during movement, PD subjects were as accurate overall as controls. However, PD subjects showed greater variable errors, more irregular trajectories, and a vertical endpoint bias in which their endpoints were significantly lower than controls. They also showed deficiencies in the compensatory organization of joint rotations to ensure consistency in azimuthal (horizontal) positioning of the arm endpoint. We concluded that, under appropriate task conditions, PD subjects may not show overall deficits in accuracy even when making targeted movements at normal speed without visual feedback. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that there are certain dimensions of performance which are selectively altered in Parkinson's disease even when overall performance is normal.

Restricted access

Howard K. Hall and Anthony T.J. Byrne

Recent empirical evidence (Weinberg, Bruya, & Jackson, 1985) has brought into question whether the positive beneficial effects of goal setting found in organizational settings are directly generalizable to the domain of sport. This investigation attempted to determine whether increased control over powerful extraneous variables influencing motivation would enable goal-setting effects to be observed in sport settings, and second, it examined the utility of either flexible subject-set subgoals or rigid experimenter subgoals as adjuncts to long-term goals. Forty-three males and 11 females were randomly assigned by class to one of four experimental conditions. Following baseline trial under do best instructions, subjects performed three trials on an endurance task under their assigned experimental conditions. A 4 × 3 (Goal Group × Trials) ANCOVA with repeated measures on the last factor and baseline performance as the covariate indicated that groups holding subgoals performed significantly better than those with do best instructions, whereas performance for those with only long-term goals approached significance. These findings clearly demonstrate a need to further understand the process of goal setting if it is to be successfully applied as an intervention technique to enhance motivation and sport performance.

Open access

Taru Manyanga, Daga Makaza, Carol Mahachi, Tholumusa F. Mlalazi, Vincent Masocha, Paul Makoni, Eberhard Tapera, Bhekuzulu Khumalo, Sipho H. Rutsate and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The report card was a synthesis of the best available evidence on the performance of Zimbabwean children and youth on key physical activity (PA) indicators. The aim of this article was to summarize the results from the 2016 Zimbabwe Report Card.

Methods:

The Report Card Working Group gathered and synthesized the best available evidence, met, discussed and assigned grades to 10 indicators based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance global matrix grading system.

Results:

The indicators were graded as follows: overall PA (C+), organized sport participation (B), active play (D+), active transportation (A-), sedentary behaviors (B), school (D), family and peers (Incomplete), community and the built environment (F), government (D) and nongovernmental organizations (Incomplete).

Conclusions:

Although the majority of children used active transport, played organized sports and engaged in acceptable levels of PA, most of them did not meet the recommended hours of unstructured/unorganized play per day. At present, there are limited data to accurately inform the Zimbabwe Report Card therefore studies employing robust research designs with representative samples are needed. Zimbabwe also needs to prioritize policies and investments that promote greater and safe participation in PA among children and youth.

Restricted access

Tiffany Young and Chantelle Sharpe

Background:

Grandparents and the grandchildren they raise may experience stress related to their caregiving relationship that negatively impacts their health. Thus, there is a need to develop intergenerational health promotion interventions for these kinship families.

Methods:

An 8-week intergenerational physical activity intervention for kinship families was developed and implemented. The specific goal was to understand the process of implementing the intervention. Content analysis of observational data provided an in-depth account of the intervention’s process (ie, recruitment, dose delivered, dose received, fidelity, and context).

Results:

Community and support service organizations referred more participants to the study than individual stakeholders. Most participants attended approximately 10 classes, and the grandparents were more engaged than the grandchildren during the classes. Intervention fidelity was confirmed with the fidelity checklist and observational notes. Health emerged as a barrier to participation, while the intergenerational nature of the intervention was a facilitator. Lastly, the context domain described how the grandparents’ complex lives affected their ability to participate, while the dedication of the recreation staff helped the intervention to proceed efficiently.

Conclusion:

The distinct details gleaned from this study can provide guidance on how to develop and implement future intergenerational interventions.

Restricted access

Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.

Methods:

Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.

Results:

Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

Restricted access

Niamh Reilly, Gavin P. Lawrence, Thomas Mottram and Michael Khan

The perceptual-motor impairments of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are attributed to central (e.g., neurophysiology deficits that affect the retrieval or initiation of motor programs) and peripheral (e.g., anatomical deficits relating to issues with inertia of limb mechanics and muscle organization) processes. However, recent research suggests that central deficits do not affect the integration between movements. We investigate the impact of central and peripheral DS deficits on movement integration by examining the planning and execution of multiple-target multiple-arm movements. Individuals with DS, typically developing (TD), and individuals with an undifferentiated intellectual disability (UID) completed five aiming tasks: a one target; a one-arm, two-target extension; a two-arm, two-target extension (movement one was performed with one arm and movement two performed with the other); a one-arm, two-target reversal; and a two-arm, two-target reversal. Movement times (MTs) to the first target were longer in the two-target tasks compared with the one-target task. For the one-arm, two-target reversal task, this effect emerged only in individuals with DS. These results indicate that individuals with DS use central processing for movement integration similarly to their TD and UID counterparts but cannot exploit peripheral-level integration to enhance integration in one-arm reversal tasks.

Restricted access

Amy B. Cadwallader and Bob Murray

Whenever athletes willfully or accidentally ingest performance-enhancing drugs or other banned substances (such as drugs of abuse), markers of those drugs can be detected in biological samples (e.g., biofluids: urine, saliva, blood); in the case of some drugs, that evidence can be apparent for many weeks following the last exposure to the drug. In addition to the willful use of prohibited drugs, athletes can accidentally ingest banned substances in contaminated dietary supplements or foods and inadvertently fail a drug test that could mean the end of an athletic career and the loss of a good reputation. The proliferation of performance-enhancing drugs and methods has required a corresponding increase in the analytical tools and methods required to identify the presence of banned substances in biofluids. Even though extraordinary steps have been taken by organizations such as the World Anti-Doping Agency to limit the use of prohibited substances and methods by athletes willing to cheat, it is apparent that some athletes continue to avoid detection by using alternative doping regimens or taking advantage of the limitations in testing methodologies. This article reviews the testing standards and analytical techniques underlying the procedures used to identify banned substances in biological samples, setting the stage for future summaries of the testing required to establish the use of steroids, stimulants, diuretics, and other prohibited substances.