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Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi

that the tightness of the hip-flexor muscle can reduce hip extension that create a lumbar hyperextension and pelvic anterior tilt in various movements in water. 6 Pelvic anterior tilting can make the pelvis at a lower position than normal in water. 6 A study examined the swimmers experiencing LBP and

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Jake A. Melaro, Ramzi M. Majaj, Douglas W. Powell, Paul DeVita and Max R. Paquette

, Watertown, MA) were used to obtain 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics and GRFs, respectively, during walking. The 3D kinematics were tracked using retroreflective markers applied to the pelvis and right leg of each participant. Thermoplastic shells with at least 3 noncollinear markers were secured to the pelvis

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

placed on the trunk, pelvis, right thigh, right shank, and right foot (Figure  1 ) with imaginary markers digitized at appropriate anatomical landmarks, including coracoid processes, xiphoid process, anterior superior iliac spines, posterior superior iliac spines, greater trochanters, right femoral

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

joint kinematics and kinetics, reflective markers were identified manually within the Qualisys workstation software (Qualisys Inc). Visual 3-D software (C-Motion, Rockville, MD) was then used to quantify 3-D kinematics and kinetics of the tibiofemoral joint. The pelvis segment was modeled as a cylinder

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Abbigail Ristow, Matthew Besch, Drew Rutherford and Thomas W. Kernozek

Wisconsin–La Crosse. Procedures Prior to any activity, 47 reflective markers were placed on each participant. 31 These markers were adhered to tight fitting clothing or onto the participant’s skin on their head, trunk, pelvis, and upper-extremities and lower-extremities. Marker placements included 4

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Cherice N. Hughes-Oliver, Kathryn A. Harrison, D.S. Blaise Williams III and Robin M. Queen

medial and lateral first and fifth metatarsal heads) and segment tracking (calcaneus, shank, thigh, and pelvis) markers placed on bilateral lower extremities (Figure  1 ). The static joint markers were used to establish joint centers and segment coordinate systems for both movement tasks. The static

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

, neurological disease, musculoskeletal dysfunction of the lumbar spine or pelvis, or claustrophobia were recruited and randomly assigned to the ST or EMS group (Figure  1 and Table  1 ). Participants with cardiac pacemakers or other electronic implants were excluded from the EMS group. Individuals who had an

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James P. Fletcher, James David Taylor, Chris A. Carroll and M. Blake Richardson

account only the joint motion superior to the sacrum, whereas the T12 inclinometer allows the measurement process to take into account only the joint motion inferior to T12. Thus, the measurement excludes both the thoracic and the pelvis/hip range of motion from the total forward bending motion, resulting

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi

trunk action occurs, it accompanies the forward thrust of the arm by flexing forward at the hips. Preparatory extension sometimes precedes forward hip flexion. Step 2 Upper trunk rotation or total trunk (“block”) rotation. The spine and pelvis rotate away from the intended line of flight and then

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John H. Hollman, Tyler A. Berling, Ellen O. Crum, Kelsie M. Miller, Brent T. Simmons and James W. Youdas

distal calf and secured to the plinth. An additional strap was secured around the pelvis to stabilize the back and pelvis and minimize utilization of extraneous muscles during MVIC testing. Participants flexed their knee isometrically against resistance at approximately 20° of knee flexion. Three 7