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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity of the participants. Locations of the markers were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system (Vicon Motion System Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom) at 120 Hz. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured by 2 force plates (Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH) at

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

so when imbalances occur, alterations in mechanical alignment and load affect the kinetic chain. For example, muscle tightness of the hamstrings pulls the ipsilateral innominate bone of the pelvis posteriorly, shortening the abdominal muscles. In return, the erector spinae and hip flexors become

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

were flexed to 85°. Participants were instructed to perform STS at a self-selected pace while their arms hanging at their sides. Then, they were asked to sit on the stool for 6 s. 5 Cervical spine, upper thoracic spine (T1–T6), midthoracic spine (T7–T12), and lumbar spine Pelvis Torso sagittal ROM

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Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio and David Barbado

19 : (1) lumbopelvic postural control tests, based on clinical concepts of spine stability/instability (eg, “the ability to control motion of the lumbar spine and pelvis relative to an arbitrarily defined neutral position”) 20 and measuring the ability to maintain a given lumbopelvic position in

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

variable in segment couplings involving the knee joint than healthy runners. Seay and colleagues ( 2011 ) observed systematic decreases in coordination variability in runners with low back pain. Coordination variability between the pelvis and trunk was lower in runners with current low back pain compared

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

differences could have led to differences in the EMG activity. Gluteus Medius The EMG activity of the GMED ranged from 26.3% (13.4%) to 54.6% (26.1%) MVIC (Table  6 ) during the 8 directions of the SEBT. The highest activity was observed in the medial direction because, during the task, the pelvis of the

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Shiho Goto, Naoko Aminaka and Phillip A. Gribble

extension for GMAX, hip adduction for AL, and knee extension for VM 3 times for 5 seconds in each muscle with a 2-minute interval between trials. The GMED MVIC was measured with participants in the side-lying position on a treatment table with the testing limb on top, while the pelvis was stabilized with a

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Nicola Relph and Katie Small

average was taken. This task is correlated to a forward running technique. 20 Lower-Limb Flexibility Two experienced athletic trainers took flexibility measurements on both legs, with consistent roles in each protocol. The pelvis was stabilized to avoid compensatory movements in hip measurements. The

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John R. Harry, Leland A. Barker, Jeffrey D. Eggleston and Janet S. Dufek

position after landing. No more than 11 trials were needed per participant to successfully complete the required 8 trials. A 4-segment model was built from the raw marker trajectories in the Visual 3D software suite (C-Motion Inc, Germantown, MD). Specifically, the model included the pelvis, thigh, leg

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Lauren C. Benson, Stephen C. Cobb, Allison S. Hyngstrom, Kevin G. Keenan, Jake Luo and Kristian M. O’Connor

to the pelvis and feet. Tracking markers were placed on the right and left anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, and a rigid 4-marker cluster was attached to the heel counter of the shoes. A 3-second standing calibration was recorded with calibration markers on the greater trochanters, the