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Casey Mace Firebaugh, Simon Moyes, Santosh Jatrana, Anna Rolleston and Ngaire Kerse

Among older people, regular physical activity is associated with a variety of physical and mental health benefits, including reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease, decreased risk of Type 2 diabetes, reduced risk of some cancers, reduced loss of bone mineral density and osteoporosis, and

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Sarah A. Doolittle and Paul B. Rukavina

This single case study (Yin, 2009) compares an established urban physical education/sport/physical activity program with two models: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program/CSPAP (AAHPERD, 2013; CDC, 2013); and Lawson’s propositions (2005) for sport, exercise and physical education for empowerment and community development to determine their applicability in urban schools. Data include semistructured interviews, multiple observations, and artifacts collected over two academic years. Triangulation, peer debriefing, and interpretative and member checks were used for trustworthiness. Findings indicate that most aspects of both theories were evident in the program, though goals exceeded those of CSPAP as stated, and Lawson’s concept of “community” was limited. Major themes related to establishing this CSPAP are described, including practical strategies for budget, scheduling and staffing, and qualities of leadership. Stakeholders reported that they valued the program not for student wellness, but for personal, social and academic well being, as well as for contributions to the school culture.

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Elisa Marques, Joana Carvalho, Andreia Pizarro, Flávia Wanderlay and Jorge Mota

We examined the relationship among objective measures of body composition, lower extremity strength, physical activity, and walking performance and determined whether this interaction differed according to walking ability. Participants were 126 adults ages 60–91 yr. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the 30-s chair stand test (30sCST), appendicular lean mass index (aLMI), body mass index, and age were independent contributors to walking performance, explaining 44.3% of the variance. For slower walkers, appendicular fat mass index (aFMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 30sCST, and aLMI (r 2 = .49, p < .001) largely explained variance in walking performance. For faster walkers, aFMI and aLMI explained 31.4% (p < .001) of the variance. These data suggest that both fat and lean mass are associated with walking performance in higher- and lower-functioning older adults, whereas MPVA and muscle strength influence walking ability only among lower-functioning older adults.

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Catherine B. Woods, Norah M. Nelson, Donal J. O’Gorman, Eimear Foley and Niall M. Moyna

Background:

The Take PART study—Physical Activity Research for Teenagers—was undertaken to assess (1) physical activity and sedentary behaviors, (2) indices of health and fitness, and (3) to provide information, from a social ecological perspective, on the correlates of physical activity in a large sample of 15- to 17-year-old Irish adolescents. This manuscript outlines the rationale and methodology of the Take PART study.

Methods:

A sample of 4720 students (mean age = 16.03 years ± 0.66, range 15 to 17 years; 49.5% female) participated. Fifty participants were assessed during each 3-hour school visit, with a ratio of 1 researcher to 10 students. Standardized testing procedures and extensive researcher training ensured that intertester and intratester reliability for all physical measures was ≥.85. The height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness protocols are explained. The questionnaire used well-known, valid, and reliable self-report measures. Where appropriate, additional psychometric testing was undertaken.

Conclusions:

Take PART is a school-based study. Its methods are simple, easy to replicate, financially viable, and scientifically valid. Its unique dataset will allow the evaluation of a social ecological approach as a viable option for improving understanding of youth inactivity. Ultimately, this knowledge will assist in successful intervention design.

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Deirdre Dlugonski, Katrina Drowatzky DuBose and Patrick Rider

Physical activity has well-documented health benefits across the lifespan from young childhood 1 through adulthood. 2 To achieve these benefits, a consensus of several sets of guidelines indicates that young children (aged 2–5 y) should engage in at least 180 minutes of light, moderate, or

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Neeti Pathare, Kelly Piche, Andrea Nicosia and Esther Haskvitz

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (nonoverweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes.

Method:

Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with pedometers. Data were analyzed with a three-way ANOVA (BMI × grade × gender).

Results:

No interaction was observed. There was a significant main effect for BMI. Children in the nonoverweight group took more steps than the children in overweight and obese groups during physical education classes.

Discussion/Conclusion:

The findings suggest that differences existed in PA during physical education classes in young children dependent on their BMI.

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Patricia Tucker and Jennifer D. Irwin

Objective:

To explore the characteristics of a university-wide buddy system that students would be receptive to using.

Methods:

This study targeted a heterogeneous sample of undergraduate university students age 18 to 25 y. An experienced moderator, using a semi-structured interview guide, conducted 13 focus groups (n = 65). Focus group discussions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive content analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. Measures were incorporated throughout to ensure data trustworthiness.

Results:

The value of this campus-based physical activity intervention was emphasized by the vast majority of participants. Five main themes exemplified students' preferences: sign-up methods; matching criteria; social components; policies and procedures; and contact methods.

Conclusion:

Students confirmed that a campus-based program tailored to their needs and preferences will be more effective than those to which they currently have access. Given the small number of physically active Canadian university students, a campus-based program that is appealing is important for the health of this population.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Dannielle L. Miccinello

The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model. Parents provided 225 responses that were coded as advantages, 106 as disadvantages, 225 as facilitators, and 250 as barriers of PA. The most frequently reported advantages were physical, followed by psychosocial, and cognitive. Disadvantages were psychosocial and physical. The most frequently reported barriers were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, community, and institutional. Facilitators were intrapersonal, followed by physical, interpersonal, community, and institutional. Public policy factors were elicited in the interviews.

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Hallgeir Viken, Nils Petter Aspvik, Jan Erik Ingebrigtsen, Nina Zisko, Ulrik Wisløff and Dorthe Stensvold

The aim of this study was to identify how demographics, physical activity (PA) history, and environmental and biological correlates are associated with objectively measured PA among older adults. PA was assessed objectively in 850 older adults (70–77 years, 48% females) using the ActiGraph GT3X+ activity monitor. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to identify important PA correlates. The included correlates explained 27.0% of the variance in older adult’s PA. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), gender, and season were the most important correlates, explaining 10.1%, 3.9%, and 2.7% of the variance, respectively. PA was positively associated with CRF, females were more physically active than males, and PA increased in warmer months compared with colder months. This is, to our knowledge, the largest study of PA correlates in older adults that has combined objectively measured PA and CRF. Our findings provide new knowledge about how different correlates are associated with PA.

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Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Kitty R.M. Streppel, Allard J. van der Beek, Luc H.V. van der Woude, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten and Willem van Mechelen

Background:

The objective was to determine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD).

Methods:

Forty-five non-wheelchair dependent subjects were recruited from three Dutch rehabilitation centers. Subjects’ diagnoses were: stroke, spinal cord injury, whiplash, and neurological-, orthopedic- or back disorders. The PASIPD is a 7-d recall physical activity questionnaire that was completed twice, 1 wk apart. During this week, physical activity was also measured with an Actigraph accelerometer.

Results:

The test-retest reliability Spearman correlation of the PASIPD was 0.77. The criterion validity Spearman correlation was 0.30 when compared to the accelerometer.

Conclusions:

The PASIPD had test-retest reliability and criterion validity that is comparable to well established self-report physical activity questionnaires from the general population.