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Matheus Hausen, Pedro Paulo Soares, Marcus Paulo Araujo, Débora Esteves, Hilbert Julio, Roberto Tauil, Marcus Junca, Flávia Porto, Emerson Franchini, Craig Alan Bridge and Jonas Gurgel

stage. A secondary aim was to compare the physiological responses to taekwondo-specific tests that incorporate continuous and intermittent stage increments. Methods Participants Twelve male taekwondo athletes (mean [SD], age: 20 [2] y; body mass: 67.5 [5.7] kg; height: 175 [8] cm; body fat percentage: 8

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Philo U. Saunders, Avish P. Sharma, Stephen Crowcroft and Aaron J. Coutts

benefit. 2 However, the hypoxic dose supplied was reduced compared with previous LHTL studies reporting physiological and performance benefits in endurance athletes. 9 , 10 Therefore, the resulting physiological responses to combined heat training with LHTL hypoxia in endurance athletes requires further

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Daisuke Kume, Akira Iguchi and Hiroshi Endoh

oxygenation profiles measured with NIRS provide valuable information for the understanding of physiological response in active muscles during exercise and their relationship with physical performance. The 20-m shuttle run test (20mSRT) is the most common field test for assessing aerobic fitness in many

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Claire A. Molinari, Florent Palacin, Luc Poinsard and Véronique L. Billat

Hassmén 9 showed that runners were able to self-adjust their running intensity at 3 different RPE values, with an RPE of 11 (“light” on a 6–20 Borg scale) for 3 minutes, 13 (“somewhat hard”) for 11 minutes, and 15 (“hard”) for 5 minutes. However, effort duration has an effect on physiological responses

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Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert

linked to the physiological response to PA. That is, two individuals with the same accelerometric data may have different physiological responses depending on their physical fitness level. Previous research showed that affective response to PA is related to the intensity of PA ( Ekkekakis et al., 2011

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Ana Gay, Gracia López-Contreras, Ricardo J. Fernandes and Raúl Arellano

and in swimming flume conditions. It was hypothesized that using a wetsuit would enhance 400-m front crawl performance, reduce physiological responses, and increase swimming efficiency. Complementarily, lower physiological and higher technical variables values were expected with performance in the

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Montassar Tabben, Daniele Conte, Monoem Haddad and Karim Chamari

between winners and defeated top-level karate athletes. 5 , 8 Within this context, Chaabene et al 8 have shown that in high-level karate combats, there were no significant differences in any parameters of performance analysis, as well as in physiological responses and perceived exertion between winners

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Montassar Tabben, Bianca Miarka, Karim Chamari and Ralph Beneke

physiological responses and perceived exertion between winning and losing karatekas. Similarly, Tabben et al 7 reported no significant difference in all time-motion variables between winning and losing karate athletes at high-performance level. The fact that previous studies did not identify a clear difference

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Enrique Colino, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Jose Luis Felipe

dynamics, and peak impact accelerations. 6 – 10 Thus, surface properties have been reported to affect physiological responses during endurance running. 11 – 14 Data from epidemiological studies suggest that the type of surface is also an important factor in the etiology of injuries, 15 with increased

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Óscar Martínez de Quel, Ignacio Ara, Mikel Izquierdo and Carlos Ayán

( suppl 1 ): 95 – 102 . 6. Chaabène H , Franchini E , Miarka B , Selmi MA , Mkaouer B , Chamari K . Time–motion analysis and physiological responses to karate official combat sessions: is there a difference between winners and defeated karatekas? Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2014