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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

Background: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for global mortality and a contributor to the increase in overweight and obesity. The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity identified the need for guidance on physical activity, particularly for early childhood (<5 y), a period of rapid physical and cognitive development. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the first global guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, building upon high-quality systematic reviews. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent method for the development of recommendations, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework. It takes into consideration the strength of the evidence as well as values and preferences, benefits and harms, equity and human rights. Results: The authors summarize the first global guidelines on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior (including screen time and time spent restrained), and sleep patterns in infants (birth to 1 y of age), toddlers (1–2.9 y of age), and preschoolers (3–4.9 y of age). Conclusions: WHO is actively disseminating and supporting implementation of these guidelines by national adoption and adaptation, through links with early childhood development and the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030.

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Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer and Sean K. Meehan

Background:

This study examined the effects of three different treatment doses of a motor skill intervention (the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program [CHAMP]) on changes in preschoolers’ motor performance.

Methods:

Onehundred and nine children were divided into one of four groups: control and three CHAMP dosage groups: T1, 660 min; T2, 720 min; or T3, 900 min. Motor performance was assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition (TGMD-2). We used a 2 (time) × 4 (treatment) mixed-measures ANOVA to determine interaction and main effects. Significant interactions were decomposed using separate one-way between groups ANOVAs at each time point followed by Tukey’s post hoc tests.

Results:

Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (F 3, 100 = 16.79; p < .001). There were no differences across treatment groups before the intervention (F 3, 100 = .075, p < .90), but after the intervention the control group had significantly lower TMGD-2 scores compared with all three CHAMP intervention groups (F 3, 100 = 9.92, p < .001, all post hoc tests, p < .001). Posttreatment differences can be attributed to greater improvements in motor performance following the CHAMP intervention regardless of specific dosage.

Conclusions:

Motor performance scores for all children who completed CHAMP significantly improved.

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Joanne Rowe and Rose Marie Stutts

The purpose of this study was to determine variables that affect change of attitudes of undergraduate physical education majors toward disabled persons. The subjects (175) were assigned to one of four practicum sites. They were not matched with a particular disabled person, nor were they given a choice of practicum sites. The practica were with (a) preschool disabled, (b) adult CP disabled, (c) elementary school disabled, and (d) adolescent MR disabled. The practica was for 12 weeks, 2 days per week. The physical education majors were administered the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale, Form A, on a pre- and posttest basis. Of the total subjects, 109 (63%) had negative attitudes toward disabled persons before the practica experience but had a change in attitude at the completion of the practica experience. Another 20 (11%) had negative attitudes before the practicum and remained unchanged. The remaining 46 (26%) had positive attitudes and remained positive in their attitudes toward the disabled. There was no significant difference between the results of males and females.

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. Glazebrook * 7 2 130 141 10.1123/kr.2018-0013 kr.2018-0013 MULTICULTURAL ISSUES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SPORT Preschool-Based Physical Activity Interventions in African American and Latino Preschoolers: A Literature Review Sofiya Alhassan * Christine W. St. Laurent * Sarah Burkart * 7 2 142 150 10

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Viewpoint Pediatric Adapted Physical Education for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers: Meeting IDEA-H and IDEA-B Challenges Jo E. Cowden * Bobby L. Eason 10 1991 8 4 263 279 10.1123/apaq.8.4.263 Research Issues in the Classification of Motor Disorders Walter E. Davis * Terry L. Rizzo 10

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano

are also found in individual guidelines among preschoolers (2–5 y old), as children who were nonwhite, older children, girls, and children from lower income households met fewer individual guidelines compared with their counterparts. 15 , 16 There is limited evidence in preschoolers addressing

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Fitness in Preschool Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) exhibit difficulties with motor coordination, but can also have lower levels of health-related fitness (HRF) and higher rates of obesity. However, the majority of this

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ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and E. Andrew Pitchford

Fitness in Preschool Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) not only exhibit difficulties with motor coordination, but can also have lower levels of health-related fitness (HRF) and higher rates of obesity. However, the majority of

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Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Linda Biersteker, Caylee J. Cook, Jacqui Couper, Monique de Milander, Kamesh Flynn, Sonja Giese, Soezin Krog, Estelle V. Lambert, Tamarin Liebenberg, Cyndi Mendoza, Terri Nunes, Anita Pienaar, Alessandra Priorieschi, Dale E. Rae, Nafeesa Rahbeeni, John J. Reilly, Louis Reynolds, Marie-Louise Samuels, Ricardo Siljeur, Jody Urion, Mariza van Wyk and Anthony D. Okely

from a low-income urban SA setting has shown that obesity in the preschool years is highly predictive of obesity in adolescence. 12 Despite these concerning statistics, there have been no guidelines developed for any of the 24-hour movement behaviors for any age group in SA, including the early years

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Karen Tonge, Rachel A. Jones and Anthony D. Okely

preschools (n = 30) and found that center policies and practices such as daily routines that offered active opportunities were positively associated with children’s physical activity. 10 Other studies have shown that the amount of time spent in indoor and outdoor environments 11 and the engagement of