Patrice R. Rougier and Samir Boudrahem
Past studies have emphasized the beneficial effect of additional visual feedback (VFB) on the capacity of healthy adults to decrease the amplitudes of the center-of-pressure minus center-of-gravity (CP-CGv) movements. To better assess these capacities, 56 subjects were asked to stand still on a force platform and to use the visual information provided. Dependency coefficients, based on their capacity to lower their CP-CGv movements and therefore relax their lower limb muscles, as well as parameters aimed at characterizing their postural strategies were measured across VFB conditions including (1) CP displacements in real time (VFBCP0), (2) CP displacements with a 600-ms delay (VFBCP600), and (3) CP-CGv displacements with a 600-ms delay (VFBCP-CG600). A non-VFB condition (eyes open) was also included. Several linear correlations were used to specify the relation between subjects’ capacity to relax, compared with the VFBCP0 condition, across the three remaining conditions. The data highlight the complementary nature of the VFB conditions and establish the postural control behaviors necessary to use these VFB protocols efficiently.
Michael L. Silk and John Amis
The analysis of televised sport production has largely ignored the conditions that frame cultural production and the ways in which broadcasts are constructed. Rather, scholarly discussions of televised sport production have been based on the text that goes to air. Given substantial realignments in political, economic, and cultural spheres brought about by the proliferation of a global media, it is argued that a textual perspective is inadequate if a thorough understanding of the complexities of televised sport production is to be attained. Rather, to appreciate the intricacies involved in cultural (re)production, scholars need to address the ways in which interactions among influential actors impact the process of reproducing sport for television. This paper investigates the conditions of production and the labor processes involved in reproducing a major sporting event. Using ethnographic data collected at the 1998 Kuala Lumpur Commonwealth Games in Malaysia, the ways in which micro and macro institutional processes interacted to frame the reproduction of the Games are assessed and discussed.
Karrie L. Hamstra, Jeffrey M. Cherubini and C. Buz Swanik
Samuel J.D. Cumming, Martin J. Turner and Marc Jones
Challenge cognitive appraisals are associated with superior performance compared with threat (Jones, Meijen, McCarthy, & Sheffield, 2009). However, research has not examined longitudinal temporal patterns of challenge and threat appraisals. In this study, 14 (five female) elite rowers (Mage = 25.79 years, SD = 2.67) provided self-reported appraisals data at four time points (baseline; before national trials; before the second world rowing cup regatta; and before the world rowing championships). The rowers’ predisposed appraisal style predicted subsequent appraisals. Challenge and self-efficacy increased while loss and avoidance appraisals decreased over time. The rowers were highly predisposed to challenge, becoming more challenged through events of increasing magnitude. This suggests that athletes’ predisposed appraisal style can predict their approach to competition. Future studies could identify protocols for encouraging challenge states in athletes, observe the physiological indicators of challenge and threat longitudinally, and consider the interaction between challenge and threat appraisals.
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith and Nazanin Derakshan
elevated levels of pressure ( Nicholls, Holt, Polman, & James, 2005 ). Indeed, it is not uncommon to witness both amateur and professional athletes’ performance breaking down under the perceived pressure of competition ( Geukes, Harvey, Trezise, & Mesagno, 2017 ; Moore, Wilson, Vine, Coussens, & Freeman
Paula Chaves, Daniela Simões, Maria Paço, Sandra Silva, Francisco Pinho, José Alberto Duarte and Fernando Ribeiro
pain reduction attributed to DFM seems to be triggered by the mechanical stimulus provided by the application of deep pressure during DFM, 27 regardless of the mechanism involved in its reduction. 21 , 22 , 27 – 33 The description of DFM defines that the pressure should be performed in accordance with
Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman and Guilherme M. Puga
Exercise regulates and reduces systemic blood pressure ( Cornelissen & Smart, 2013 ), which decreases hypertension, one of the main risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases ( Anunciação & Polito, 2011 ). Postexercise hypotension (PEH) has clinical importance in the prevention and treatment
Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer
skills regardless of the feeling, such as when pressured by coaches, has been described as a factor that increases the severity of the problem, and pressure from an upcoming competition or performance has been identified as a trigger of the balking phase of flikikammo among some athletes ( Day et
Paula R. Mesquita, Silvia G.R. Neri, Ricardo M. Lima, Eliane F. Manfio and Ana C. de David
The human foot is a complex structure able to support high mechanical loads. 1 In order to fulfill the requirements for locomotion, the growing foot is subject to several functional changes. 1 Typically, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and contact area tend to rise with increasing age in