and well-being of current college athletes. In the 2015 study, three-quarters of NCAA men and women (slightly higher among women and in Division III) reported that their overall academic experience had been positive ( NCAA, 2016 ). The core purpose of the NCAA is to ensure positive athletic and
Leticia Oseguera, Dan Merson, C. Keith Harrison and Sue Rankin
The voices of South African feminists and womanists are relatively absent from public debates concerning women’s participation and empowerment in sport. This paper represents a contribution to the gender discourse, drawing on feminist paradigms and reflecting on the marginality of South African women in society and in sport. The findings of two separate studies, undertaken in 1977 and 1999 respectively, are reported. The research focused on the assessment of the impact of the Sports Leaders Programme (as part of the South Africa-United Kingdom Sports Initiative) and the junior component of the sports development programme initiated by the Australian Sports Commission (Super Kidz). Data were collected by means of structured interviews from different stakeholders at macro- (national), meso- (community/institutional) and micro- (individual) levels. A representative sample for the Sports Leaders Programme included 17 co-ordinators and facilitators (at national and provincial levels) and nine sports leaders at community level. To obtain qualitative data concerning the Super Kidz Programme, two provinces were targeted for data collection. A quota sample of seven schools was selected as the experimental group (having introduced the programme) and five schools in close proximity acted as controls. One hundred and forty-four role-players at different levels of participation were interviewed. To obtain some triangulation of data, 110 role-players also participated in focus groups. The data reflecting the position and involvement of women in these programmes were analysed. Against the reality of the majority of women living in conditions of chronic poverty, exposed to patriarchy, being ideologically stereotyped and structurally marginalized, they were, to a large extent absent, and their efforts unrecognised in the institutionalised domain of sport. It was concluded that sport is a severely gendered domain in which male hegemony is acted out and perpetuated whereas women in impoverished communities view access to sport as peripheral in their everyday struggle for material survival. National agencies should therefore not rely on female volunteers to facilitate sports development in impoverished communities but to strategize differently while also redressing ideological and structural gender inequalities in the wider social context.
Carolyn Vos Strache, Alana Strong and Cheree Peterson
The omnipresent physical self remains for young adult females a significant measure of self-worth. Therefore, it comes as no surprise that coping strategies are as complex as they are pervasive as young women strive to maintain positive psychological outlooks despite negatively-perceived physical attributes. Self-presentational concerns may affect one’s activity choice.
This study expands on the work of Taylor, Neter, and Wayment (1995) to determine which motives guide the self-evaluation processes of the physical self. An examination of structured interviews identifies which motives direct women in the self-evaluation of their bodies, and concurrently examines whether different motives determine individual response when appraising a “good” versus “not good” physical aspect. Motives, as defined by Taylor et al. (1995), were self-enhancement, self-verification, self-improvement and self-assessment. Interviews were conducted with 30 female, Southern California, undergraduate college students from Southern California, ranging in age from 19-22.
A chi-square analysis revealed that women employed different motives in “good” versus “not good” body aspect comparisons (Enhancement: X2 = 21.78 p< .01; Verification: X2 = 10.05 p< .01; Improvement: X2 = 5.15 p< .05). When describing a “good” aspect, women employed the enhancement motive 92 percent of the time, verification 80 percent of the time, and improvement 15 percent of the time. For “not good” aspects, women used enhancement motive 53 percent of the time, verification 98 percent of the time, and improvement 33 percent of the time. Women used more than one motive 74 percent of the time and single motives only 26 percent of the time in the evaluation process. Direct quotes reveal that almost all the women sought out information about themselves when they thought it would reflect favorably. However, when they reported on a “not good” aspect, coping mechanisms included redirecting their attention to more positive characteristics or mentally cordoning off an area of weakness to prevent that attribute from permeating all aspects of their identity. Understanding how we think in the self-evaluation process may offer an explanation why some people are motivated to exercise and why others are not.
Gyöngyi Szabó Földesi
This paper is an analysis of the presence and the consequences of ageism and sexism in contemporary sport relative to Hungarian women. The major purposes are: (1) to consider some theoretical concerns about research on physical activity in the later years; (2) to examine how the double disadvantage of being old and female influences life-styles in connection with sport; (3) to review research relative to how and why sport is or is not an integral part of life-style of the 50+ age group of women in Hungary; (4) to present results of research carried out recently in Hungary on elderly people’s sport participation and their judgments of their own physical activity. Findings from a variety of studies were discussed, including 1987 and 1997 studies of the Budapest older population. Interview and questionnaire techniques were used to collect data relative to participation and interpretation of sport and physical activity. According to the findings, of the 1997 study, only 19% of women over 70 reported their health as satisfactory, compared with 5.6 % of the men. Lasting diseases were more frequent among women than among men (42.3 % versus 34.1 %). 38.8 % of females and 27.8 % of males aged 70-74 years cannot walk a distance of 2 kilometers; 47.1 % of females and 31.8 % of males in the same age groups are not able to ascend 10 stairsteps without taking a rest. Approximately 5 % of males over 60 and approximately 4% of females over 55 were physically active. It appears to the great majority of Hungarian older women that they are losers of the recent system change: because of growing poverty their life-chances have been worsening, their opportunities for choosing the components of their life-styles-including physical activity have narrowed and social distances within and between the individual age cohorts have increased, including sport participation. There is a need for rethinking attitudes and for increasing awareness of how physical fitness could keep Hungarians in all ages healthier, more independent and more optimistic.
.1123/shr.36.1.43 White Man’s Burden Revisited: Race, Sport, and Reporting the Hansie Cronje Cricket Crisis in South Africa and Beyond John Nauright * 5 2005 36 1 61 75 10.1123/shr.36.1.61 Book Review Book Review Tim Morris 5 2005 36 1 76 84 10.1123/shr.36.1.76 shr Sport History Review 1087-1659 1543
Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling
up 19% of all head coaches in 2010–2011 ( Donnelly, Kidd, & Norman, 2011 ), 17% in 2011–2013 ( Donnelly, Norman, & Kidd, 2013 ), and only 16% in 2014–2015 ( Norman, Donnelly, & Kidd, 2017 ). There are even fewer female coaches reported at the international level with women representing only 13% of
Lori A. Gano-Overway
interventions instituted in sport or physical activity settings based on research and best practices and reporting on lessons learned that could inform practitioners. Alternatively, practical articles could take the form of policy recommendations that would outline how individuals and/or organizations could
Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore
exercisers successfully maintaining their exercise habit and reporting high scores for mindfulness and acceptance, as well as low scores on suppression. In the sport context, researchers showed mindfulness during practice was positively associated with the participants’ perceived social support and cognitive
Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer
. Injury rates are an epidemiologically-appropriate method for reporting and evaluating sports injury statistics ( Daneshvar et al., 2011 ; Dick, Agel, & Marshall, 2007 ; Knowles, Marshall, & Guskiewicz, 2006 ). During the 2017 academic year, women enrolled in boxing experienced a CHI rate of 1
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling
the sexual abuse of athletes by authority figures ( Parent & Fortier, 2018 ). Despite the predominant focus on sexual abuse of athletes, research consistently indicates that it is the emotional abuse of athletes that is the most frequently reported form of abuse ( Alexander, Stafford, & Lewis, 2011