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Andrew Rudd, Susan Mullane and Sharon Stoll

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the moral judgments of sport managers called the Moral Judgments of Sport Managers Instrument (MJSMI). More specifically, our intention was to measure moral judgment on a unidimensional level given past research suggesting moral judgment is a unidimensional construct (Hahm, Beller, & Stoll, 1989; Kohlberg, 1984; Piaget, 1932; Rest, 1979, 1986). The MJSMI contains 8 moral dilemmas/stories in the context of sport management. Sport managers respond to the dilemmas on a four-point Likert scale. Three pilot studies were undertaken to develop the MJSMI. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were the primary methods for assaying reliability and validity. Results consistently showed that sport managers’ responses vary depending on the nature of the moral scenario and thus do not indicate a unidimensional construct. The reasons for inconsistent responses are thoroughly discussed.

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Stephen Dittmore, Daniel Mahony, Damon P.S. Andrew and Mary A. Hums

The purpose of this study was to measure U.S. National Governing Body (NGB) administrators’ perceptions of fairness of financial resource allocation within the U.S. Olympic Movement. This study extends previous research on distributive justice in the sport industry by examining a new setting and controlling for the potential moderating effect of procedural justice. Presidents and executive directors responded to a survey containing three resource allocation scenarios. Study participants most often identified need to be competitively successful as the most fair distribution principle, but believed equity based on medals won was the most likely to be used. Results also indicated significant differences in the perceived fairness of distribution principles based on the budget size of the NGB, the membership size of the NGB, and the NGB’s success in the Olympic Games. These results have implications for the evolving priorities of NGBs, how these priorities are being addressed, and possible reactions to resource distribution decisions.

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Linda M. Petlichkoff

The purpose of this investigation was to replicate and extend previous research (16) that examined group differences (starters, primary and secondary substitutes) on achievement goal orientations, perceived ability, and level of satisfaction. Athletes (N=417), ranging in age from 14 to 18 years, responded to an interscholastic sport questionnaire at preseason and postseason. Multivariate analyses revealed significant player status and time-of-season main effects for males, females, and age groups 14–15 years, 16 years, and 17–18 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that starters were significantly higher on their perceived ability rating than primary and secondary substitutes. Group differences also revealed there were player status differences on the ability and mastery goal orientations for males and females, and for 17- to 18-year-olds. The time main effect revealed that the mastery orientation decreased from the preseason to postseason assessment.

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Arnold LeUnes and Sue Ann Hayward

Departmental chairpersons of American Psychological Association-approved clinical psychology programs responded to a questionnaire concerned with selected aspects of sport psychology. Of 147 chairs, 102 (69.4%) returned the instrument. The nine questions comprising the instrument were aimed at assessing the current perception of and future predictions for sport psychology. Data analysis is supportive of the viability of sport psychology but also indicates that it is not a major curricular component in selected psychology departments at the present time. Sport psychology appears to be positively perceived by the current respondents, and there is little evidence of an impending turf war between psychology and physical education over who will control the field. However, the use of the term sport psychologist is seen as contentious in view of state/provincial licensing laws, but no clear-cut answer to credentialing is foreseen.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar

Context:

Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.

Objective:

To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.

Design:

A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.

Results:

Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.

Conclusions:

Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.

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Melanie Sartore and George Cunningham

The purpose of this inquiry was to explore the meanings and organizational implications of lesbianism and the lesbian label within the sport organization context. Fourteen faculty members from two health and kinesiology departments were asked how they, their colleagues, and their departments defined, responded to, coped with, and managed the lesbian label. First and foremost, the words of these faculty members identify the lesbian label as a component of a lesbian stigma at both the individual and departmental levels and within the field of health and kinesiology as a whole. The consequences of the stigma, however, varied by department suggesting the importance of departmental culture and atmosphere. Implications of these findings, as they pertain to sport managers, are discussed.

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Ronald W. Davis, Jerome E. Kotecki, Michael W. Harvey and Amy Oliver

This study describes responsibilities and training needs of paraeducators in physical education. Paraeducators (n =138) employed in 34 midwestern schools received a 27-item questionnaire. Of the 138 paraeducators contacted, 76 responded, resulting in a 55.1% response rate. Only 16% of the total respondents (n = 76) reported receiving specific training in physical education; however, 68 (90%) indicated a willingness to be trained. Less than half (n = 29, 38%) indicated participating in physical education by escorting students, providing cues, and working individually with students. Fewer than eight (28%) of the physical education paraeducators assisted with assessments, shared IEP suggestions, or helped implement behavior modification programs. The most desired training areas included activity modifications, attributes of students with disabilities, and knowledge of motor development.

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Deborah Rohm Young, Abby C. King and Roberta K. Oka

This investigation identified demographic and health-related characteristics of 1,877 sedentary, underactive, and regularly active individuals aged 50 to 65 randomly sampled from a northern California city. Physiological and psychosocial information was available in greater detail for a subsample (n = 327) of sedentary and underactive persons who were subsequently enrolled in a randomized, controlled, clinical trial (SSHIP). Results suggested that unmarried men, women reporting poor health, and smokers were most likely to be completely sedentary. Sedentary and underactive individuals responded differently to two recruitment strategies designed to attract participants into SSHIP. In addition, the initially sedentary participants had significantly lower adherence rates across the 1-year exercise trial compared to the initially underactive regardless of either the format or intensity of the program. These data underscore the utility of differentiating between levels of less-than-optimal physical activity in formulating campaigns promoting physical activity as well as designing exercise interventions.

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Kathy J. Spangler and Linda L. Caldwell

A collaborative framework that influences the promotion of policy related to physical activity should include parks and recreation as well as public health practitioners and researchers. As governments at all levels become increasingly focused on the impact of public resources, park and recreation agencies are challenged to document and demonstrate the impact of leisure services. Public policy associated with parks and recreation is driven by public interest and is often debated in the absence of relevant research to demonstrate the determinants and correlates of parks and recreation to address prevailing social conditions. This paper describes current policy and funding issues faced by public parks and recreation professionals responding to increasing physically active leisure across the lifespan of Americans. We also discuss how a collaborative framework approach can be used to inform public policy designed to increase the physical activity of the American public.

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Lew Hardy and Gaynor Parfitt

The aim of this paper is to describe and appraise two different models used for providing sport psychology support services to the British Amateur Gymnastics Association over the last 6 years. In the first phase, the sport psychologists assumed the traditional role of experts who evaluated performers’ needs and then prescribed educational psychological skills training programs according to the sport psychologists’ perceptions of individual needs. This approach contained both educational and monitoring elements. The second phase adopted a consultancy approach in which the coach, performer, and sport psychologist were all assumed to bring expert knowledge to bear on any problem. In this approach, the sport psychologists responded to the expressed needs of performers and coaches, assuming diverse roles. According to the sport psychologists, this second model was more difficult to operate than the first model. However, consultant evaluation data and consultant opinion suggested the second model operated more successfully than the first.