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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt

– β error probability) = .80, α error probability = .05, effect size f  = .33, numerator df  = 2, number of groups = 3, resulting in an optimal sample size of 93. Instruments and Procedures Sport Practice The amount of time devoted to after-school sports participation was evaluated by means of a

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Hedda Berntsen and Elsa Kristiansen

degree of need-satisfaction will determine to what extent athletes exhibit autonomous sports participation motivation. One of the key postulates of SDT is that the quality of athletes’ motivation will influence athlete outcomes, such as performance and well-being ( Deci & Ryan, 2000 ; Mageau & Vallerand

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Jeff J. Brodeur, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

, Whitehead TS , Webster KE . Sports participation 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes who had not returned to sport at 1 year: a prospective follow-up of physical function and psychological factors in 122 athletes . Am J Sports Med . 2015 ; 43 ( 4 ): 848 – 856 . PubMed

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Brandon A. Yates, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

, quadriceps strength deficits have been shown to be linked to increased fear and a lack of confidence, which may further have an effect on the safe return to preinjury sports participation. 47 Also, recently published consensus criteria for a successful outcome following ACLR stated that greater than 90% of

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Melinda Forthofer, Marsha Dowda, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Cheryl L. Addy, Samantha McDonald, Lauren Reid and Russell R. Pate

Associations between PA and children’s reports of self-efficacy, 12 , 13 barriers to PA, 12 parental support for PA, and peer support for PA 12 , 14 may be moderated by gender. Children’s sports participation has been associated with MVPA levels, 15 which may contribute to girls’ declines in MVPA during

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Brad J. Stenner, Amber D. Mosewich and Jonathan D. Buckley

difference in participation rates for men and women. Despite the previous work in sports participation for older adults, there is a relative lack of research in the area of golf, and specific research on why older adults play golf, and whether these reasons differ between genders. Therefore, the objectives

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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway and Jay Hertel

Soccer has become increasingly popular among American adolescents, and it has become one of the top choices for high school sports participation, as approximately 820,000 boys and girls participate in organized high school soccer. 1 Unfortunately, soccer is also among the sports with the highest

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

to moderate intellectual disability than for their peers without intellectual disability. Differences were particularly marked for waves 1, 2, and 4, where questions only asked about sports participation (as opposed to sport and any physical exercise in waves 6 and 7). Furthermore, girls with

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Mayrena I. Hernandez, Kevin M. Biese, Dan A. Schaefer, Eric G. Post, David R. Bell and M. Alison Brooks

, gender, and socioeconomic status) and information regarding all sports participation, (2) sport specialization status, (3) attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization and youth sport participation, and (4) injury history in the previous 12 months (which is neither discussed nor analyzed for the

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

 Inactive 13 8.10  Lightly active 47 29.40  Moderately active 42 26.30  Highly active 58 36.30 Sport participation  No 88 55.00  Yes 72 45.00 Sports participation classification b  Football 8 11.11  Soccer 5 6.94  Track and field/cross-country 17 23.61  Baseball 3 4.17  Softball 8 2.78  Women’s basketball 3