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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of oxygen that the body is able to utilize for aerobic energy metabolism within the muscles. b Economy of movement: that is, the proportion of VO 2 max that the athlete is able to sustain for prolonged periods. The mismatch between energy intake and exercise energy expenditure that causes LEA in

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

. Table 3 Performance Supplements That May Achieve a Marginal Performance Gain in Track-and-Field Events as Part of a Bespoke and Periodized Training and Nutrition Plan Event Caffeine Creatine Nitrate β-Alanine Bicarbonate Sprints: 100 m, 100-m hurdles, 110-m hurdles, and 200 m ✓ ✓ Sustained sprints: 400

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

these variables across distance/time); and associated muscle functional responses (e.g., maximal aerobic speed and sustainable fraction, knee extensor force, and/or peak power output) appear to be strong predictors of performance outcomes in single-stage mountain trail ultramarathons ( Balducci et

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

such as Rhodiola rosea and sage might also improve cognitive performance and reaction time. Rhodiola rosea is reported to influence endurance performance ( De Bock et al., 2004 ), but in this study there was no specific influence on sustained attention or reaction time. Noreen et al. ( 2013 ) examined

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

.35 g/kg) Route: oral gavage (13 days preinjury and 10 days postinjury) Control: oral saline gavage Follow-up: 10 days Prevention of reduction in prefatigued tetanic strength (however, not sustained during fatigue protocol) ↓ Expression of phosphorylated TGF-β receptor Type I at Day 10 ( p  < .05

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Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole and Brian Dawson

increase in both relative total and high-speed activity following the first quartile. In agreement with previous research, 13 it is possible the players were aware that starting the second bout with a high-running intensity may not be sustainable for the remainder of the quarter, therefore implemented a

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Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King and Rick L. Sharp

cycling bout at 65% VO 2max , carbohydrate oxidation was equally elevated after preexercise ingestion of either DEX or AMY-7. By 120 min, carbohydrate oxidation was higher with AMY-7, leading them to conclude that AMY-7 provides a more sustained fuel source due to its slow rate of digestion. In the

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Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita and Franck Brocherie

component of field hockey 2 , 4 and is typically associated with the key moments of a match (eg, gaining advantage over an opponent or creating scoring opportunities). Transient and sustained fatigue-related declines in physical performance (ie, high-intensity running and sprinting) have been reported in

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

riders (70–85 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ). 2 – 5 Therefore, the assessment of efficiency/economy and the capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work may have greater relevance for longitudinal evaluation of well-trained cyclists. 2 , 4 , 6 These variables may discriminate cyclists

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Alice M. Wallett, Amy L. Woods, Nathan Versey, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

of heart rate maximum. LT1 is the first intensity at which there is a sustained increase in blood lactate concentration (>0.4 mmol/L) above resting levels, and LT2 (calculated using the modified D max method) indicates the upper limit of equilibrium between lactate production and lactate clearance