In the reciprocal style of teaching learners are paired, and as one practices the task, the other provides immediate feedback. This study examined the effect of pairing learners in the reciprocal style by ability (high, low, and mixed) and by companionship (friend and nonacquaintance) on provision of feedback and perceived comfort while learning motor skills. Thirty-two students between 9 and 12 years of age practiced soccer juggling during a 25-minute lesson and soccer dribbling during another 25-minute lesson, in both of which they were paired for similar versus different ability and for friend versus nonaquaintance. After each lesson, the students were asked how comfortable they felt giving and receiving feedback. The results showed that the observers gave specific feedback more frequently to friends than nonacquaintances, and that the doers felt more comfortable receiving feedback from friends than nonacquaintances. Learner ability level did not affect the amount of specific feedback provided by the observer or the doer comfort in receiving feedback. This study supports several claims set forth by Mosston and Ashworth (1986) for the reciprocal style of teaching.
This study describes the beliefs of Physical Education (PE) teachers regarding Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Twenty PE teachers participated in this study. Data collection consisted of a survey on demographic data and semistructured interviews. The research results indicate that the teachers were positively or neutrally disposed to TGfU. They were motivated to use TGfU either intrinsically by their responsibilities and satisfaction, or extrinsically by pressure to comply with how principals, professional colleagues, and students felt about the TGfU model. Furthermore, most of the participants expressed having low confidence in TGfU teaching due to the limitation of internal factors, such as inadequate game knowledge, limited TGfU conceptual understanding, and inability to modify games, and external factors, including contextual constraints, safety concern, and conflict with the current learning assessment system. The discussion of findings in relation to TPB furthers the understanding of TGfU implementation by the teachers (only nine out of 20 PE teachers adopted the TGfU model in classes). The findings also provide empirical evidence to support moral norm and affective beliefs as additional TPB predictors, as well as the influence of control beliefs on behavior and normative beliefs.
Wallace B. Salter and George Graham
The effects of three disparate styles of teaching were examined to determine their influence on motor skill acquisition, cognitive learning related to the performance of a motor skill, and students’ ratings of self-efficacy. The subjects were third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children (N = 244) in two rural elementary schools. The three instructional methodologies employed were Command, Guided Discovery, and No Instruction. The criterion lesson was a 20-minute experimental teaching unit using a novel golf task. Results revealed no significant differences between the groups taught by the three instructional approaches on skill improvement or self-efficacy. Cognitive understanding improved significantly for the groups taught by the command and guided discovery approaches, however, as compared to the no-instruction groups. Students in the no-instruction groups had a significantly higher number of skill attempts (M = 29.56) as compared to the command (M = 18.56) and guided discovery (M = 20.63) groups. This finding served as a plausible explanation for the lack of significant difference in skill improvement between the three groups on the criterion skill.
Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle, Kenneth Fox and Martin Underwood
The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational effects of two different teaching styles in one sport activity. One class of 24 girls was taught track and field for 10 weeks, each lesson being taught with either a direct (practice) or a differentiated (inclusion) teaching style. After each lesson the girls completed self-report measures of intrinsic motivation and goal involvement. On course completion, 8 girls were interviewed to assess their reactions to the course. ANOVA showed that students reporting higher levels of competence, autonomy, and task orientation had higher intrinsic motivation scores throughout the course. However, teaching style was also found to have an independent effect; the differentiated style was associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation and task goal involvement and lower levels of work avoidance involvement. A differentiated teaching style can positively influence young girls’ reactions to a sports activity independently of perceptions of goal orientations, autonomy, and competence.
Content in physical education has been the subject of research for some years, with most studies being carried out under two scientific programs. One, in North America, concerned primarily with pedagogical content knowledge; the other, in France, studying the didactics of physical education. The purpose of this paper is to describe the theoretical framework, methodology, and principal results of these programs. It examines their similarities, differences, and the contribution of each to the teaching and learning of content in physical education. Researchers in both fields state that pedagogical content in physical education (a) is highly domain-specific to the activity being taught. (b) falls within an analysis of the situated-action, (c) undergoes long-term evolution in relation to professional competence, and (d) depends on constraints inherent in the system. Beyond the specifics of each program, there are some similarities that open up possibilities for fruitful collaboration between researchers in the two communities.
Michael A. Hemphill, Andrew R. Richards, Thomas J. Templin and Bonnie Tjeerdsma Blankenship
Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that included a qualitative component, 38.2% of those used mixed methods. Results include analyses of types of qualitative research, research focus, theoretical frameworks, data collection techniques, trustworthiness techniques, and participants. The Research Authorship Score revealed that qualitative research tends to rely on teams of researchers in the conduct of studies. By extending previous work, this study reveals that qualitative research continues to play a significant role in research on physical education.
Barrie Gordon, Jenn M. Jacobs and Paul M. Wright
This study examined a long-term afterschool leadership program situated in a Midwestern university town in the US. The activity-based program for boys considered to be disengaged with school and at risk for dropping out of education, was based on the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model. The program curriculum was strongly aligned with the social and emotional learning (SEL) theoretical framework. The study sought to identify the learning(s) that occurred and the impact of participation for participants. The key findings were that 1) the pedagogical approach and strategies of TPSR when implemented with a high level of fidelity align strongly with the SEL framework; 2) the structure and design of this TPSR based program was an important ingredient in the school’s overall approach to supporting SEL among students, and 3) a number of SEL outcomes were identified as a result of participation in this program.
David Brown and John Evans
Drawing on illustrations from a recent life history study that focused on male student teachers as they negotiated their way through a 1-year postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE) physical education teacher training course at a university in England, this paper explores how teachers are implicated in the social construction of gender relations in teaching physical education and school sport. The perspective forwarded is that the embodied gendered dispositions student teachers bring into the profession constitute a powerful influence on their professional behavior, and that the development and legitimation of these dispositions might be traced to key relationships with other physical education and coaching professionals. In so doing, we identify key moments in a process of cultural reproduction and conclude that teachers might be viewed as intergenerational living links or cultural conduits in the construction and transmission of particular gender orientations and practices in the profession. We conclude that future research needs to be intergenerational in focus if we are to better understand how these links act as channels in reproducing gender relations and how we might rupture and challenge them.
María Trinidad Morales-Belando and José L. Arias-Estero
To determine whether a TGfU intervention improved participants’ decision-making, skill execution, game performance, game involvement, game knowledge, enjoyment, perceived competence, and intention to continue practicing sailing.
Participants were 19 sailors (age: M = 8.44, SD = 1.24 years old). This study followed a mixed-methods approach. The children participated in 12 TGfU intervention sessions and 2 prepost assessment sessions. We designed and validated the sessions, and the coach was trained in TGfU. Data were collected using GPAI during an Olympic triangle race, an ad hoc knowledge questionnaire, two psychological scales, and interviews of children and coach.
Statistically significant improvements were found in decision-making, Δ = 3.97, skill execution, Δ = .43, game performance, Δ = 5.34, and game involvement, Δ = 7.89.
The results support TGfU may serve to sail training in youth sport. Sailing coaches now have a teaching-learning framework that determines “what” and “how” the tasks must be, the feedback, and participant and coach behavior.
Athanasios G. Papaioannou
Based on recent trends in positive psychology, on ancient Greek sport literature and particularly on Aristotle’s philosophy, the holistic, harmonious and internal motivational components of excellence and their implications for students’ motivation for physical activity, health and well-being are presented. While modern motivational theories and research have partly addressed the holistic and internal motivational components of excellence, they have yet to address its harmonious part. In this article it is explained why all three components of excellence are required to promote eudaimonic well-being, which is the ultimate aim of Olympism. It is argued also that the conceptualization of hedonic-eudaimonic well-being should be primarily based on the “me” versus “us” meaning. While current physical activity experiences more often reflect a hedonistic perspective, to promote health and well-being for all, an eudaimonic perspective in teaching in physical education and youth sport is needed. This should primarily focus on the promotion of Olympic ideals, such as excellence, friendship, and respect. These three ideals and well-being are all very much interconnected, when all three components of excellence exist in excess. To promote excellence, Olympic ideals, and well-being, the core ideas of an educational philosophy promoting excellence in physical education and youth sport are presented.