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James A. Ashton-Miller and Ronald F. Zernicke

decades, but a one-of-a-kind “failure”—an event that led to first biomechanical analysis of a human patellar tendon rupture during actual sports competition 1 —catalyzed me to develop new research interests in connective tissue and bone adaptation and injury. To put this failure in context, my PhD student

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Louis M. Ferreira, Graham J.W. King and James A. Johnson

Techniques have evolved for quantifying human tendon and ligament forces in the lower extremity 1 – 4 ; however, similar systems for the upper extremity are not well described. Friden et al described a technique for measuring tension in the brachioradialis muscle after tendon transfer 5 ; however

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Kentaro Chino and Hideyuki Takahashi

–passive joint torque curve 1 , 2 : greater passive joint stiffness represents lower joint flexibility. Therefore, passive joint stiffness is an important in vivo measurement in joint flexibility. Passive joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint including muscles, tendons

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Natália Barros Beltrão, Camila Ximenes Santos, Valéria Mayaly Alves de Oliveira, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, David Behm, Ana Carolina Rodarti Pitangui and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

Stretching intensity is an important variable that can be manipulated with flexibility training. The degree of muscle-tendon elongation is controlled by the individual’s subjective assessment of stretch tolerance based on the degree of pain or discomfort. 1 Although stretching intensity can

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and/or reconstruction may alter knee proprioception. 1 – 3 Previous studies have provided evidence of the presence of mechanoreceptors within the ACL, including Ruffini and Pacinian corpuscles, Golgi tendon organs, and free nerve endings, and of the

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

ASS (prior to the activity) may contribute to changes in muscle tendon unit (MTU) 4 and neural reaction. 5 , 10 The MTU stiffness is a viscoelastic property of the muscle, tendon, and other surrounding connective tissues, which can detect the rapidity of muscle force transmission to the skeletal

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Masatoshi Nakamura, Shigeru Sato, Ryosuke Kiyono, Nobushige Takahashi and Tomoichi Yoshida

In clinical and sports settings, static stretching (SS) is usually performed to increase range of motion (ROM) and decrease passive stiffness of muscle-tendon units (MTU). Upon investigating the acute effects of SS, several previous studies reported increased ROM 1 , 2 and decreased passive

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Kimberly Somers, Dustin Aune, Anthony Horten, James Kim and Julia Rogers

-myofascial release and dynamic stretching interventions. Research has shown that ROM can be increased through repeated bouts of stretching by increasing muscle tendon unit length and decreasing muscle stiffness. 13 Using ultrasonography, Morse et al 13 found available ROM prior to stretching resulted from

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a painful overuse condition of the patellar tendon accompanied by dysfunction typically with high levels of physical activity. 1 , 2 PT affects up to 45% of athletes involved in jumping sports. 3 Clinically, its pathological process results in decreased load

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Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski

profile of pathologies that affect midfoot integrity may better represent the effects of pathology on patient function. Posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, and midfoot arthritis are examples of pathologies that affect midfoot anatomy and kinematics, but have received minimal