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Liane S. Lewis, James Hernon, Allan Clark and John M. Saxton

limitations of previous IPAQ-L validation studies in older people. First, the IPAQ-L was administered by interview to prevent misinterpretation of common PA terms such as ‘duration’, ‘frequency’, and ‘intensity’ in older populations, and all interviews were carried out by the same interviewer, thus

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

, in terms of measuring ITL, has yet to be established within adolescent distance running. Session rating of perceived exertion has been validated within many different sports and study populations. 12 However, less is known about dRPE-L and dRPE-B, in addition to whether these measures of ITL are

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Irini Anastasiadi and George Tzetzis

Background:

The Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and the Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) are 2 measures of children’s participation in various activities. The purpose of this study was the validation of the Greek version of “CAPE & PAC.”

Methods:

The questionnaires were translated and pilot tested on a sample of 25 individuals. The reliability and validity of the questionnaires were tested on 302 individuals (253 typical population, 49 disabled), 6−21 years of age. The construct validity of the instruments was examined the directional hypothesis by comparing known groups with existing differences. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the typology of activities. The reliability was examined by checking the internal consistency of the instruments.

Results:

The comparison between divergent groups confirmed the predicted differences of the mean scores and the validity of the instruments. Seven factors (categories of activities) emerged from the factor analysis. The acceptable range of Cronbach alpha for the PAC scale indicated high consistency.

Conclusion:

This study provides evidence that partially support the validity and reliability of “CAPE & PAC” instruments to use in Greek population. Further investigation is recommended for both clinical and research purposes.

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Christine Adele Schaefer, Heidi Nace and Ray Browning

Background:

The wrist has become a standard location for accelerometry (ACC) data collection, primarily to optimize compliance, yet interpretation of wrist ACC data is limited due to a lack of calibration studies. This study aimed to establish cutpoints for a wrist-mounted Actical accelerometer in 6- to 11-year-old children using 2 methods.

Methods:

Metabolic and ACC data (15-sec epoch) were collected during 8 activities in 22 children ages 6–11. Linear regression (LR) and Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) were used to examine the relationship between METs and ACC counts. Cutpoints were established at < 1.5, 1.5–2.99, 3–5.99, and ≥ 6 METs for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, respectively. Cutpoints were applied to a large, multiday sample of children (n = 269) to examine differences in cutpoints on minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA).

Results:

LR and ROC yielded moderate cutpoints of 574 and 388, respectively. When applied to the large sample, LR and ROC cutpoints resulted in an estimated 83 and 140 minutes of daily MVPA, respectively.

Conclusions:

This study established wrist-mounted Actical cutpoints for children using 2 methods. The differences in cutpoints and their effect on estimates of MVPA in an independent sample highlight challenges associated with establishing cutpoints, suggesting that standardized calibration procedures be developed.

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Louise C. Mâsse and Judith E. de Niet

Background:

Over the years, self-report measures of physical activity (PA) have been employed in applications for which their use was not supported by the validity evidence.

Methods:

To address this concern this paper 1) provided an overview of the sources of validity evidence that can be assessed with self-report measures of PA, 2) discussed the validity evidence needed to support the use of self-report in certain applications, and 3) conducted a case review of the 7-day PA Recall (7-d PAR).

Results:

This paper discussed 5 sources of validity evidence, those based on: test content; response processes; behavioral stability; relations with other variables; and sensitivity to change. The evidence needed to use self-report measures of PA in epidemiological, surveillance, and intervention studies was presented. These concepts were applied to a case review of the 7-d PAR. The review highlighted the utility of the 7-d PAR to produce valid rankings. Initial support, albeit weaker, for using the 7-d PAR to detect relative change in PA behavior was found.

Conclusion:

Overall, self-report measures can validly rank PA behavior but they cannot adequately quantify PA. There is a need to improve the accuracy of self-report measures of PA to provide unbiased estimates of PA.

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Elaine M. Heiby and Robin A. Sato

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Deborah Kendzierski and Kenneth J. DeCarlo

Two studies examined the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). In Study 1, each subject rode an exercise bicycle under control and external focus conditions. The PACES had high internal consistency in both conditions. As predicted, subjects reported enjoying the exercise more, as measured by the PACES, in the external focus condition. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation in the control condition between subjects' PACES scores and their scores on a measure of boredom proneness. In Study 2, each subject rode an exercise bicycle and jogged on a minitrampoline in separate sessions; each then chose one of these activities for their third session. Again, the PACES had high internal consistency. And, as predicted, there was a significant relationship between subjects' PACES ratings (completed after each activity) and their choices of activity. Test-retest reliability was high for jogging and moderate for bicycling. These studies provide preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the PACES.

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Brent L. Arnold

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Marilyn J. LaPlante and Ann E. Jewett

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Norihisa Fujii and Mont Hubbard

A simulation and optimization procedure was constructed to investigate the relationships between optimal movement and muscular strength for baseball pitching. Four segments (torso, upper arms, lower arms, hands) and six torque generators (shoulders, elbows, wrists) are modeled. The torque generators have torque-angle and torque-angular velocity characteristics of Hill-type muscle function. The optimization objective function includes release velocity and negative terms penalizing joint loading and inaccuracy. The weighting coefficient for joint loads has a strong influence on the results. As this coefficient increases, the motion becomes more similar to actual measured pitches. Combining active state patterns optimized for different weighting coefficients gives larger joint loads in the simulated motion. This supports the hypothesis that well-coordinated active states are important for controlling the relationships of the different torque generators in order to create a reasonable and effective pitching motion. The model proposed here is superior to previous simulations for throwing, from the viewpoint of modeling with characteristics of Hill-type muscle function, and can be used to explore realistic baseball pitching.