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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

Global positioning systems (GPS) that are embedded in microtechnology devices have previously been shown to be reliable for measuring the activity profiles of field-based team-sport athletes. 1 In addition to GPS data, these microtechnology devices contain accelerometers that provide information

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

segmental forces, 8 but these methods offer limited ecological validity. Contemporary means of quantifying lumbar spine loading is provided by applications in global positioning system (GPS) technology, which enable measurement in the clinical or sporting context. Typical GPS analysis metrics include

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Eduardo A. Abade, Bruno V. Gonçalves, Nuno M. Leite and Jaime E. Sampaio


To provide the time–motion and physiological profile of regular training sessions (TS) performed during the competitive season by under-15 (U15), under-17 (U17), and under-19 (U19) elite-level Portuguese soccer players.


One hundred fifty-one elite players of U15 (age 14.0 ± 0.2 y, n = 56), U17 (age 15.8 ± 0.4 y, n = 66), and U19 (age 17.8 ± 0.6 y, n = 29) participated in the study during a 9-wk period. Time–motion and body-impact data were collected using GPS technology (15 Hz) across 38 randomly selected TS that resulted in a total of 612 samples. In addition, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored (1 Hz) in the selected TS.


The total distances covered (m) were higher in U17 (4648.3 ± 831.9), followed by U19 (4212.5 ± 935.4) and U15 (3964.5 ± 725.4) players (F = 45.84, P < .001). Total body impacts and relative impacts were lower in U15 (total: 490.8 ± 309.5, F = 7.3, P < .01), but no differences were identified between U17 (total: 584.0 ± 363.5) and U19 (total: 613.1 ± 329.4). U19 players had less high- and very-high-intensity activity (above 16 km/h; F = 11.8, P < .001) and moderate-intensity activity (10.0–15.9 km/h; F = 15.07, P < .001). HR values showed significant effects of zone (F = 575.7, P < .001) and interaction with age group (F = 9.7, P < .001), with pairwise differences between all zones (zone 1, <75%; zone 2, 75–84.9%; zone 3, 85–89.9%; zone 4, ≥90%). All players spent most of their time below 75% HRmax (U15, ~50%; U17, ~42%; U19, ~50%).


Results showed high variability between TS, refraining from identifying meaningful trends when measuring performance, although different demands were identified according to age group. The U15 TS were less physiologically demanding, probably because of increased focus on small-sided games to develop basic tactical principles and technical skills. The focus on game-like situations imposed higher external and internal workloads on U17 and U19 players.

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

potential for wearable microtechnology devices as a means of prescribing and monitoring bowling workload. The microtechnology described typically refers to a triaxial accelerometer embedded within a global positioning satellite (GPS) unit. This unit is typically worn in a customized vest that positions the

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Jade A.Z. Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B. Pyne and Sam Robertson

activity profiles for each player were measured for 1, 2, or 3 games within each participant’s competitive season, with an average of 67 (80) days between physical testing and game. Data were recorded using a global positioning system (GPS) device (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia

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Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett

.8 [5.0] min·wk −1 ) unit skills, captain’s run (15.2 [7.9] min·wk −1 ), and modified game periods (20.4 [7.2] min·wk −1 ). Eleven injury-free Premier Grade squad players were randomly selected for involvement each week to accommodate the limited global positioning system (GPS) devices available to

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

provides perspectives on how some of these issues surrounding player tracking and athlete monitoring may be overcome. Emerging Technologies in the NBA The recent widespread adoption of emerging technologies (eg, Global Positioning System [GPS] technology) in many international team sports has led to an

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

subsequent training weeks involved both field- and gym-based training, with repeated testing taking place at consistent time points pretraining and posttraining. Throughout these training weeks, GPS data were used to quantify field load, while gym load was standardized and consistent—with typical in

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Matthew R. Blair, Nathan Elsworthy, Nancy J. Rehrer, Chris Button and Nicholas D. Gill

Committee. Design During elite Super Rugby matches, referees wore a HR monitor (1 Hz; Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland) to record their HR responses throughout each from a strap worn around the referee’s chest and recorded by the Global Positioning System (GPS) device. Time–motion analysis was completed

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

standardized warm-up followed by reactive strength, low-load speed strength, high-load speed strength, and maximum strength exercises (see Table  1 ). Captain’s run was 30 minutes long and global positioning system (GPS) data were collected, also as per standard practice at the club (15 Hz SPI-HPU; GPSports