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Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y. Robertson and Kevin G. Thompson

Purpose:

To determine the effect of training at 2100-m natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance.

Methods:

In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD age 25 ± 5 y, VO2max, 71 ± 5 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed either 4–6 wk of sea-level training (CON, n = 7) or a 4- to 5-wk natural altitude-training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400–2700 m (ALT, n = 12) after a period of sea-level training. Each training session was recorded on a GPS watch, and athletes also provided a score for session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Training sessions were grouped according to duration and intensity. RS (km/h) and sRPE from matched training sessions completed at sea level and 2100 m were compared within ALT, with sessions completed at sea level in CON describing normal variation.

Results:

In ALT, RS was reduced at altitude compared with sea level, with the greatest decrements observed during threshold- and VO2max-intensity sessions (5.8% and 3.6%, respectively). Velocity of low-intensity and race-pace sessions completed at a lower altitude (1400 m) and/or with additional recovery was maintained in ALT, though at a significantly greater sRPE (P = .04 and .05, respectively). There was no change in velocity or sRPE at any intensity in CON.

Conclusion:

RS in elite middle-distance athletes is adversely affected at 2100-m natural altitude, with levels of impairment dependent on the intensity of training. Maintenance of RS at certain intensities while training at altitude can result in a higher perceived exertion.

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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

Global positioning systems (GPS) that are embedded in microtechnology devices have previously been shown to be reliable for measuring the activity profiles of field-based team-sport athletes. 1 In addition to GPS data, these microtechnology devices contain accelerometers that provide information

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Eduardo A. Abade, Bruno V. Gonçalves, Nuno M. Leite and Jaime E. Sampaio

Purpose:

To provide the time–motion and physiological profile of regular training sessions (TS) performed during the competitive season by under-15 (U15), under-17 (U17), and under-19 (U19) elite-level Portuguese soccer players.

Methods:

One hundred fifty-one elite players of U15 (age 14.0 ± 0.2 y, n = 56), U17 (age 15.8 ± 0.4 y, n = 66), and U19 (age 17.8 ± 0.6 y, n = 29) participated in the study during a 9-wk period. Time–motion and body-impact data were collected using GPS technology (15 Hz) across 38 randomly selected TS that resulted in a total of 612 samples. In addition, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored (1 Hz) in the selected TS.

Results:

The total distances covered (m) were higher in U17 (4648.3 ± 831.9), followed by U19 (4212.5 ± 935.4) and U15 (3964.5 ± 725.4) players (F = 45.84, P < .001). Total body impacts and relative impacts were lower in U15 (total: 490.8 ± 309.5, F = 7.3, P < .01), but no differences were identified between U17 (total: 584.0 ± 363.5) and U19 (total: 613.1 ± 329.4). U19 players had less high- and very-high-intensity activity (above 16 km/h; F = 11.8, P < .001) and moderate-intensity activity (10.0–15.9 km/h; F = 15.07, P < .001). HR values showed significant effects of zone (F = 575.7, P < .001) and interaction with age group (F = 9.7, P < .001), with pairwise differences between all zones (zone 1, <75%; zone 2, 75–84.9%; zone 3, 85–89.9%; zone 4, ≥90%). All players spent most of their time below 75% HRmax (U15, ~50%; U17, ~42%; U19, ~50%).

Conclusion:

Results showed high variability between TS, refraining from identifying meaningful trends when measuring performance, although different demands were identified according to age group. The U15 TS were less physiologically demanding, probably because of increased focus on small-sided games to develop basic tactical principles and technical skills. The focus on game-like situations imposed higher external and internal workloads on U17 and U19 players.

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

segmental forces, 8 but these methods offer limited ecological validity. Contemporary means of quantifying lumbar spine loading is provided by applications in global positioning system (GPS) technology, which enable measurement in the clinical or sporting context. Typical GPS analysis metrics include

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Mitchell J. Henderson, Bryna C.R. Chrismas, Christopher J. Stevens, Aaron J. Coutts and Lee Taylor

tournament within the stadium WBGT peak was 37.5°C, with expectations that tournament day one would see similar WBGT values; however, conditions on the day were surprisingly mild (≤20°C WBGT; Table  2 ). Activity profiles during matches were measured using 10 Hz GPS devices (EVO; GPSports, Canberra

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

potential for wearable microtechnology devices as a means of prescribing and monitoring bowling workload. The microtechnology described typically refers to a triaxial accelerometer embedded within a global positioning satellite (GPS) unit. This unit is typically worn in a customized vest that positions the

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Jade A.Z. Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B. Pyne and Sam Robertson

activity profiles for each player were measured for 1, 2, or 3 games within each participant’s competitive season, with an average of 67 (80) days between physical testing and game. Data were recorded using a global positioning system (GPS) device (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia

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Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett

.8 [5.0] min·wk −1 ) unit skills, captain’s run (15.2 [7.9] min·wk −1 ), and modified game periods (20.4 [7.2] min·wk −1 ). Eleven injury-free Premier Grade squad players were randomly selected for involvement each week to accommodate the limited global positioning system (GPS) devices available to

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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan

In team sports, the use of microtechnology, including global positioning systems (GPS) and triaxial accelerometers, is now important to monitor training and match movement patterns. 1 , 2 For example, information on athletes’ activity profiles, such as total distance traveled and the magnitude of

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

provides perspectives on how some of these issues surrounding player tracking and athlete monitoring may be overcome. Emerging Technologies in the NBA The recent widespread adoption of emerging technologies (eg, Global Positioning System [GPS] technology) in many international team sports has led to an