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Richard Akenhead and George P. Nassis

Training load (TL) is monitored with the aim of making evidence-based decisions on appropriate loading schemes to reduce injuries and enhance team performance. However, little is known in detail about the variables of load and methods of analysis used in high-level football. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide information on the practices and practitioners’ perceptions of monitoring in professional clubs. Eighty-two high-level football clubs from Europe, the United States, and Australia were invited to answer questions relating to how TL is quantified, how players’ responses are monitored, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of monitoring. Forty-one responses were received. All teams used GPS and heart-rate monitors during all training sessions, and 28 used rating of perceived exertion. The top-5-ranking TL variables were acceleration (various thresholds), total distance, distance covered above 5.5 m/s, estimated metabolic power, and heart-rate exertion. Players’ responses to training are monitored using questionnaires (68% of clubs) and submaximal exercise protocols (41%). Differences in expected vs actual effectiveness of monitoring were 23% and 20% for injury prevention and performance enhancement, respectively (P < .001 d = 1.0−1.4). Of the perceived barriers to effectiveness, limited human resources scored highest, followed by coach buy-in. The discrepancy between expected and actual effectiveness appears to be due to suboptimal integration with coaches, insufficient human resources, and concerns over the reliability of assessment tools. Future approaches should critically evaluate the usefulness of current monitoring tools and explore methods of reducing the identified barriers to effectiveness.

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Blake D. McLean, Cloe Cummins, Greta Conlan, Grant Duthie and Aaron J. Coutts

Global positioning systems (GPS) that are embedded in microtechnology devices have previously been shown to be reliable for measuring the activity profiles of field-based team-sport athletes. 1 In addition to GPS data, these microtechnology devices contain accelerometers that provide information

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Eduardo A. Abade, Bruno V. Gonçalves, Nuno M. Leite and Jaime E. Sampaio


To provide the time–motion and physiological profile of regular training sessions (TS) performed during the competitive season by under-15 (U15), under-17 (U17), and under-19 (U19) elite-level Portuguese soccer players.


One hundred fifty-one elite players of U15 (age 14.0 ± 0.2 y, n = 56), U17 (age 15.8 ± 0.4 y, n = 66), and U19 (age 17.8 ± 0.6 y, n = 29) participated in the study during a 9-wk period. Time–motion and body-impact data were collected using GPS technology (15 Hz) across 38 randomly selected TS that resulted in a total of 612 samples. In addition, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored (1 Hz) in the selected TS.


The total distances covered (m) were higher in U17 (4648.3 ± 831.9), followed by U19 (4212.5 ± 935.4) and U15 (3964.5 ± 725.4) players (F = 45.84, P < .001). Total body impacts and relative impacts were lower in U15 (total: 490.8 ± 309.5, F = 7.3, P < .01), but no differences were identified between U17 (total: 584.0 ± 363.5) and U19 (total: 613.1 ± 329.4). U19 players had less high- and very-high-intensity activity (above 16 km/h; F = 11.8, P < .001) and moderate-intensity activity (10.0–15.9 km/h; F = 15.07, P < .001). HR values showed significant effects of zone (F = 575.7, P < .001) and interaction with age group (F = 9.7, P < .001), with pairwise differences between all zones (zone 1, <75%; zone 2, 75–84.9%; zone 3, 85–89.9%; zone 4, ≥90%). All players spent most of their time below 75% HRmax (U15, ~50%; U17, ~42%; U19, ~50%).


Results showed high variability between TS, refraining from identifying meaningful trends when measuring performance, although different demands were identified according to age group. The U15 TS were less physiologically demanding, probably because of increased focus on small-sided games to develop basic tactical principles and technical skills. The focus on game-like situations imposed higher external and internal workloads on U17 and U19 players.

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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

segmental forces, 8 but these methods offer limited ecological validity. Contemporary means of quantifying lumbar spine loading is provided by applications in global positioning system (GPS) technology, which enable measurement in the clinical or sporting context. Typical GPS analysis metrics include

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Mitchell J. Henderson, Bryna C.R. Chrismas, Christopher J. Stevens, Aaron J. Coutts and Lee Taylor

tournament within the stadium WBGT peak was 37.5°C, with expectations that tournament day one would see similar WBGT values; however, conditions on the day were surprisingly mild (≤20°C WBGT; Table  2 ). Activity profiles during matches were measured using 10 Hz GPS devices (EVO; GPSports, Canberra

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Matt Greig and Benjamin Child

potential for wearable microtechnology devices as a means of prescribing and monitoring bowling workload. The microtechnology described typically refers to a triaxial accelerometer embedded within a global positioning satellite (GPS) unit. This unit is typically worn in a customized vest that positions the

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Jade A.Z. Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B. Pyne and Sam Robertson

activity profiles for each player were measured for 1, 2, or 3 games within each participant’s competitive season, with an average of 67 (80) days between physical testing and game. Data were recorded using a global positioning system (GPS) device (OptimEye S5; Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia

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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan

In team sports, the use of microtechnology, including global positioning systems (GPS) and triaxial accelerometers, is now important to monitor training and match movement patterns. 1 , 2 For example, information on athletes’ activity profiles, such as total distance traveled and the magnitude of

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Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett

.8 [5.0] min·wk −1 ) unit skills, captain’s run (15.2 [7.9] min·wk −1 ), and modified game periods (20.4 [7.2] min·wk −1 ). Eleven injury-free Premier Grade squad players were randomly selected for involvement each week to accommodate the limited global positioning system (GPS) devices available to

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Blake D. McLean, Donald Strack, Jennifer Russell and Aaron J. Coutts

provides perspectives on how some of these issues surrounding player tracking and athlete monitoring may be overcome. Emerging Technologies in the NBA The recent widespread adoption of emerging technologies (eg, Global Positioning System [GPS] technology) in many international team sports has led to an