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Hye-Ryun Hong, Jin-Kyung Cho, Ji-Young Lee, Jin-Koo Park and Hyun-Sik Kang

The present study investigated the relationships among metabolic risk factors, major lifestyle factors, and serum cytokines in a sample of Korean children. In a cross-sectional design, we studied a total of 275 children (130 boys and 145 girls) aged 12–13 years. Measured variables included anthropometrics, blood pressures (BP), VO2max, physical activity (PA), dietary intakes, lipids, glucose, and insulin. We explored the extent to which dietary intakes, VO2max, PA, and serum cytokines explained variance in a clustered risk score, which is a sum of Z scores for waist circumference, BP, TG, HDLC, and HOMA-IR, using a stepwise linear regression by blocks. VO2max, vigorous PA (VPA), and leptin were independent predictors for the clustered risk score while adjusting for age and Tanner stage. Our findings suggest that the clustered risk score is associated not only with low levels of VO2max and VPA, but also with elevated serum leptin in Korean children.

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Ben Dascombe, Nicola Bullock and Aaron J. Coutts

This study aimed to profile the physiological characteristics of junior sprint kayak athletes (n = 21, VO2max 4.1 ± 0.7 L/min, training experience 2.7 ± 1.2 y) and to establish the relationship between physiological variables (VO2max, VO2 kinetics, muscle-oxygen kinetics, paddling efficiency) and sprint kayak performance. VO2max, power at VO2max, power:weight ratio, paddling efficiency, VO2 at lactate threshold, and whole-body and muscle oxygen kinetics were determined on a kayak ergometer in the laboratory. Separately, on-water time trials (TT) were completed over 200 m and 1000 m. Large to nearly perfect (−.5 to −.9) inverse relationships were found between the physiological variables and on-water TT performance across both distances. Paddling efficiency and lactate threshold shared moderate to very large correlations (−.4 to −.7) with 200- and 1000-m performance. In addition, trivial to large correlations (−.11 to −.5) were observed between muscle-oxygenation parameters, muscle and whole-body oxygen kinetics, and performance. Multiple regression showed that 88% of the unadjusted variance for the 200-m TT performance was explained by VO2max, peripheral muscle deoxygenation, and maximal aerobic power (P < .001), whereas 85% of the unadjusted variance in 1000-m TT performance was explained by VO2max and deoxyhemoglobin (P < .001). The current findings show that well-trained junior sprint kayak athletes possess a high level of relative aerobic fitness and highlight the importance of the peripheral muscle metabolism for sprint kayak performance, particularly in 200-m races, where finalists and nonfinalists are separated by very small margins. Such data highlight the relative aerobic-fitness variables that can be used as benchmarks for talent-identification programs or monitoring longitudinal athlete development. However, such approaches need further investigation.

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Yagesh N. Bhambhani, Robert S. Burnham, Gary D. Wheeler, Peter Eriksson, Leona J. Holland and Robert D. Steadward

In this study we compared the ventilatory threshold (VT) between 8 untrained and 8 endurance-trained males with quadriplegia during simulated wheelchair exercise. Each subject completed an incremental velocity test in his personal wheelchair mounted on a customized roller system designed to provide velocity and distance feedback. VT was identified by two trained evaluators using established respiratory gas exchange criteria. A significant interevaluator reliability coefficient of .90 (p < .01) was observed for the detection of VT. Relative oxygen uptake (V̇O2, ml · kg-1 · min-1) at VT and peak V̇O2 were significantly (p < .05) higher in the endurance-trained compared to untrained subjects. However, no significant difference (p > .05) was observed between the two groups when VT was expressed as a percentage of peak V̇O2. Significant correlations of .86 and .81 (p < .01) were observed between VT and peak V̇O2 in the untrained and trained groups, respectively. It was concluded that endurance training improves both VT and peak V̇O2 during wheelchair exercise in male subjects with quadriplegia but does not improve VT when it is expressed relative to peak V̇O2.

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Lee N. Cunningham

This study compared team performances of adolescent female cross-country runners in relation to maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy (RE). Twenty female runners (M age = 16.0 yrs) from four high school teams that competed in the Massachusetts All-State Cross-Country Championship Meet underwent maximal treadmill testing. When physiologic parameters were grouped by team, significant differences were observed for only V̇O2 max and percent V̇O2 at a 215 m • min−1 pace. The mean VO2 max for Team 1 (the All-State Meet champions) was found to be significantly higher than that of Teams 3 and 4 (70.7 ± 4 vs. 56.5±4, and 58.6 ± 4 ml • kg−1 • min−1, respectively). When running on the treadmill at a 215 m • min−1 pace, members of Team 1 were working at a significandy lower percent of VO2 max than Team 3 (70 ± 3 vs. 84 ± 4). The estimated physiologic requirements for running the All-State Meet based upon data derived from physiologic testing were not statistically different between teams (p>0.05). In conclusion, most of the physiologic variables investigated were not sensitive enough to separate out performance differences between top high school cross-country teams. Of these variables, VO2 max is suggested to be the primary physiologic determinant for team success for this age group of female runners.

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Kenneth R. Turley and Jack H. Wilmore

This study investigated whether cardiovascular responses at a given submaximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2, L · min-1) are different between the treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). Submaximal cardiovascular measurements were obtained at three work rates on both the TM and CE in 7- to 9-year-old children (12 males and 12 females). Using regression analysis, it was determined that there were no differences between the TM and CE in cardiac output (L · min-1), stroke volume (SV, ml · beat-1) or heart rate (beats · min-1) at a given V̇O2 (L · min-1). There were differences in the total peripheral resistance (TPR, units) and arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff, ml · 100 ml-1) to V̇O2 (L · min-1) relationship. While there were statistically significant differences in TPR and a-vO2 diff between the two modalities, there was substantial overlap of individual values at any given submaximal V̇O2, thus the physiological significance is questionable. Hence, we conclude that in 7- to 9-yearold children there are no differences in submaximal cardiovascular responses between the CE and TM.

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Sigurbjörn Árni Arngrímsson, Torarinn Sveinsson and Erlingur Jóhannsson

The purpose of this study was to validate an equation that has been used to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and, if invalid, to develop a new equation predicting VO2peak from performance on a cycle ergometer test. Forty-five 9- and 15-year-old children underwent a VO2peak test and were randomized into developmental (DEV) and cross-validation (C-V) groups. The equation under validation, which requires knowledge of resting energy expenditure (REE), underestimated VO2peak (p < .05), but once adjusted with a new parameter calculated in DEV, it cross-validated well (r YY′ = .98, SE = .18 L · min−1). The accuracy of a new prediction equation built in DEV, not using REE, was confirmed in C-V (r YY′ = .98, SE = .17 L · min−1) and the slope and intercept were not different from the line of identity (p < .05). VO2peak in schoolchildren can be predicted with good accuracy from an equation based on the whole sample [VO2peak′ = −1.5986 + 0.0115 · (maximal power output) + 0.0109 · (mass) + 0.1313 · (gender) + 0.0085 · (maximal heart rate)].

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Linda S. Pescatello, Loretta DiPietro, Ann E. Fargo, Adrian M. Ostfeld and Ethan R. Nadel

The cross-sectional relationship between physical activity, physical fitness, and measures of resting hemodynamic function and adiposity was examined in 11 women and 14 men, all of whom were in good health (M age = 69.3 yrs). Resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) differed significantly by quartiles of both weekly energy expenditure and estimated VO2max. Subjects whose energy expenditure was above the 50th percentile had significantly lower DBP than less active subjects, independent of age, gender, and VO2max, whereas those above the 75th percentile of VO2max had lower DBP and mean arterial pressure compared to less fit subjects, independent of age, gender, and weekly energy expenditure. There were no significant differences in the body mass index or percent body fat by quartile of weekly energy expenditure or estimated VO2max in the multivariable analysis. Mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) differed by level of weekly energy expenditure, independent of age, gender, and VO2max; individuals who reported a threshold of energy expenditure ≥6,099 kcal/wk had less relative abdominal fat than those reporting less activity. There were no significant independent differences in mean WHR or the central-to-peripheral skinfold ratio between quartiles of VO2max.

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Ryan D. Burns, James C. Hannon, Timothy A. Brusseau, Patricia A. Eisenman, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Greg J. Welk and Matthew T. Mahar

Cardiorespiratory endurance is a component of health-related fitness. FITNESSGRAM recommends the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) or One mile Run/Walk (1MRW) to assess cardiorespiratory endurance by estimating VO2 Peak. No research has cross-validated prediction models from both PACER and 1MRW, including the New PACER Model and PACER-Mile Equivalent (PACER-MEQ) using current standards. The purpose of this study was to cross-validate prediction models from PACER and 1MRW against measured VO2 Peak in adolescents. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13–16 years (Mean = 14.7 ± 1.3 years; 32 girls, 52 boys) who completed the PACER and 1MRW in addition to a laboratory maximal treadmill test to measure VO2 Peak. Multiple correlations among various models with measured VO2 Peak were considered moderately strong (R = .74–0.78), and prediction error (RMSE) ranged from 5.95 ml·kg-1, min-1 to 8.27 ml·kg-1.min-1. Criterion-referenced agreement into FITNESSGRAM’s Healthy Fitness Zones was considered fair-to-good among models (Kappa = 0.31–0.62; Agreement = 75.5–89.9%; F = 0.08–0.65). In conclusion, prediction models demonstrated moderately strong linear relationships with measured VO2 Peak, fair prediction error, and fair-to-good criterion referenced agreement with measured VO2 Peak into FITNESSGRAM’s Healthy Fitness Zones.

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Jaak Jürimäe, Kaja Haljaste, Antonio Cicchella, Evelin Lätt, Priit Purge, Aire Leppik and Toivo Jürimäe

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the energy cost of swimming, body composition, and technical parameters on swimming performance in young swimmers. Twenty-nine swimmers, 15 prepubertal (11.9 ± 0.3 years; Tanner Stages 1−2) and 14 pubertal (14.3 ± 1.4 years; Tanner Stages 3−4) boys participated in the study. The energy cost of swimming (Cs) and stroking parameters were assessed over maximal 400-m front-crawl swimming in a 25m swimming pool. The backward extrapolation technique was used to evaluate peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). A stroke index (SI; m2 · s−1 · cycles−1) was calculated by multiplying the swimming speed by the stroke length. VO2peak results were compared with VO2peak test in the laboratory (bicycle, 2.86 ± 0.74 L/min, vs. in water, 2.53 ± 0.50 L/min; R2 = .713; p = .0001). Stepwise-regression analyses revealed that SI (R2 = .898), in-water VO2peak (R2 = .358), and arm span (R2 = .454) were the best predictors of swimming performance. The backward-extrapolation method could be used to assess VO2peak in young swimmers. SI, arm span, and VO2peak appear to be the major determinants of front-crawl swimming performance in young swimmers.

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Christopher D. Black and Patrick J. O’Connor

Ginger has known hypoalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of an oral dose of ginger on quadriceps muscle pain, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and recovery of oxygen consumption were examined during and after moderateintensity cycling exercise. Twenty-five college-age participants ingested a 2-g dose of ginger or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design and 30 min later completed 30 min of cycling at 60% of VO2peak. Quadriceps muscle pain, RPE, work rate, heart rate (HR), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were recorded every 5 min during exercise, and HR and VO2 were recorded for 20 min after exercise. Compared with placebo, ginger had no clinically meaningful or statistically significant effect on perceptions of muscle pain, RPE, work rate, HR, or VO2 during exercise. Recovery of VO2 and HR after the 30-min exercise bout followed a similar time course in the ginger and placebo conditions. The results were consistent with related findings showing that ingesting a large dose of aspirin does not acutely alter quadriceps muscle pain during cycling, and this suggests that prostaglandins do not play a large role in this type of exercise-induced skeletal-muscle pain. Ginger consumption has also been shown to improve VO2 recovery in an equine exercise model, but these results show that this is not the case in humans.