This study determined what the courts have said regarding the condition of equipment and facilities in physical education, athletic, and intramural programs and developed guidelines to assist sport managers. Four trends emerged from the study: (a) In comparison with the 14 equipment cases, the larger number of 60 facility cases is significant, (b) The number of reported cases based on the doctrine of governmental immunity did not decrease through the years, as was anticipated, but remained relatively constant within and across the decades, (c) The number of equipment and facility cases supports the observation that America is becoming an increasingly litigious society. (d) Generally neither age, role, sex of the injured party, nor the sport or activity within which the injury occurred would appear to influence the decision of the court. Court decisions consistently have been based on the presence or absence of the four elements necessary to prove negligence and the legal principle applied. Guidelines were extracted from the cases.
Se-Hyuk Park and Yong-Man Kim
This paper describes the development of a 20-item instrument for assessing participants' attitudinal loyalty in the contexts of recreational sport activities. Out of 211 participants, 189 provided usable responses to the questionnaire regarding demographics, attitudes toward recreational sport participation, and intention to renew membership. An analysis revealed three factors that formed the subscales for attitudinal loyalty construct: normative, affective, and investment loyalty. All scales had coefficient alpha values of .70 or above. Thus, the analyses confirmed the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire after translation of the items from English into Korean and their adaptation to recreational sport contexts. The matrix of correlations among attitudinal loyalty dimensions indicates that one dimension cannot fully predict another, and that all dimensions must be simultaneously taken into account in describing the attitudinal loyalty construct. The multifaceted nature of attitudinal loyalty construct may prove useful for segmenting the recreational sport market.
Norm O’Reilly and Twan Huybers
As an accepted tool in the promotional mix of organizations, sponsorship and sport sponsorship have become everyday marketing practice, in which sponsors invest in sponsees in return for marketing value. The implementation, or fulfillment, as it is often called in practice, of a sponsorship involves three main activities: activation, evaluation and servicing. While the literature has investigated both activation and evaluation, work in the area of servicing is limited. Guided by a sponsorship-linked marketing lens, a longitudinal study of sponsorship organizations was undertaken followed by a best-worst scaling experiment. Longitudinal results inform us that sponsees are underservicing sponsors; however, the best-worst scaling experiment finds a reduced gap. Results illustrate that although gaps between importance and performance perceptions are relatively small for sponsors, sponsees and agencies, a mixed pattern of agreement and disagreement exists between each of the three respondent groups in relation to the specific importance and performance dimensions.
Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Jeffrey D. James
The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Yuhei Inoue, Aubrey Kent and Seoki Lee
Despite the acknowledged importance of investigating the link between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) within a single industry, very few studies have examined this relationship in the context of the sport industry. Using charitable giving data as a proxy of CSR, this study investigated if CSR would affect CFP of professional sport teams within the four major U.S. leagues. Although the positive CSR-CFP relationship was hypothesized based on instrumental stakeholder theory, CSR was found to have non-positive effects on CFP. These results are still notable since they may highlight the importance of the connectedness between CSR and team operations and the awareness of CSR activity among stakeholders in leveraging CSR benefits. Overall, through the use of improved methodology, the current study furthers the understanding of the CSR-CFP relationship among the U.S. professional teams.
Osamu Hata and Norio Umezawa
This study examined the rates and patterns of use of the various facilities, equipment, and programs in a Yokohama fitness club. Analyses of the responses of 208 members (males = 98, females = 110) to a specially constructed questionnaire showed that the showers, sauna, bath, and Jacuzzi were the most often used facilities followed by aerobic exercise machines (e.g., exercise bikes and treadmills), the swimming pool, and machines for training the lower and upper body. In addition, four distinct and representative patterns of use of the facilities and equipment were identified. Swimming activities dominated Pattern A, and accordingly it was named the Swimming Pattern (n=59). Pattern B, the Dance and Communication Pattern (n = 15), was characterized by the use of the communication hall and coffee lounge and participation in aerobic dance. Pattern C, the Fashionable Pattern (n = 4), consisted of participation in aerobic dance for men, 1-km swimming, and the use of the tanning corner and restaurant. Finally, Pattern D, the Machine Training Pattern (n = 130), included the use of weights to train the upper and lower body. These results revealed an inefficient use of some of the facilities and equipment of the club. In addition to these findings, respondents preferred their supervisors to be friendly and expressed a desire for a larger swimming pool.
The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the Japanese sport industry was affected by business fluctuations in the domestic economy during the 1986-1993 business cycle. In addition, the relations between changes in the general economy (gross domestic product, combined sector in the economic activities, family income, living expenditures, and working hours) and the value of the sport industry were investigated. The annual figures for these variables were derived from several government and nongovernment publications, and the percentage changes in these variables were used in multiple regression analysis. Analysis indicated that the trend in value of the sport industry was affected by the fluctuations and demonstrated positive correlation with the changes in the combined sector in the general economy. However, the trend in value of the sport industry was not correlated with trends in family income or living expenditures during the period under observation. Subsequent analysis of the sportswear sector in the sport industry demonstrated negative correlation with working hours.
Mathew Dowling and Jimmy Smith
This investigation examined how Own the Podium (OTP) has contributed to the ongoing development of highperformance sport in Canada. In adopting an institutional work perspective, we contend that OTP’s continuance has not been the sole product of Canada’s success at the Olympic and Paralympic Games or lobbying efforts to secure additional funding. Rather, OTP’s permanence can also be explained as the by-product of the activities and actions of OTP itself and its supporting stakeholders to embed and institutionalize both the organization specifically and high-performance sport more generally in the Canadian sport landscape. In short, OTP’s continued existence can, in part, be explained by ongoing institutional work. To support our contentions, we draw on and analyze documentation that was either produced by, or significant to the development of, OTP. Our analysis identifies a number of OTP-related practices (e.g., tiering, hiring of high-performance advisors, and the creation and support of new high-performance sport programs) that have further institutionalized OTP and the norms, routines, and practices associated with high-performance sport. More broadly, our investigation draws attention to the importance of individual and collective actors in shaping institutional settings in sport.
Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards
Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.