John H. Downing and Carol J. Pope
S. Tolomio, A. Ermolao, G. Travain and M. Zaccaria
Background and aims:
It is known that people affected by osteopenia/osteoporosis can benefit from an adequate amount of physical activity, counteracting the progressive loss of bone and muscle mass caused by aging. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that exercise has positive effects on bone structure. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects on bone tissue and muscular strength of a short-term exercise program in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women.
Forty-nine osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women were divided into 2 groups: exercise and control. All subjects underwent 2 evaluations: before and after a training period. Bone quality was assessed by phalangeal quantitative osteosonography, and maximal strength of leg extensor muscles was also evaluated. The experimental group participated in a specific supervised 20-week physical activity program that included aerobic, balance, and strength training.
After the training period, all bone parameters and lower-limb maximal strength were significantly improved in the exercise group (P < .05), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group.
Our study showed that a broad-based training protocol, lasting 20 weeks, can improve leg strength and bone quality parameters—main determinants of fall and fracture risk, respectively.
John M. Dunn
An historical view of the life and contributions of Hollis Francis Fait to the field of special physical education is presented in this article. Dr. Fait’s childhood, education, and early career are explored as well as his success in developing at the University of Connecticut one of the first graduate programs to train physical educators to work with the handicapped. Dr. Fait’s perspectives on athletics, administration, minorities, and scholarship are described. His belief in the need for concise language and clarity of thought demonstrated in his own scholarship is discussed.
Jaime R. DeLuca and Jessica Braunstein-Minkove
Experiential learning has become a driving force of universities around the world, and is a crucial part of many sport management programs. This is particularly true given the competitive nature of the field and the rapid changes the industry continuously faces. This work seeks to reexamine the sport management curricula to ensure a progression and evolution toward a superior level of student preparedness for their internship experiences. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, our major findings recommend a focus on academic, experiential, and professional development. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed along with limitations and directions for further investigation.
Marina Fortes, Grégory Ninot and Didier Delignières
The aims of this tutorial are three-fold: (a) to clarify the meaning of variability measurement in personality and social psychology, (b) to demonstrate the relevance of and the need for time series analysis in investigations into the dynamics of psychological phenomena, and (c) to provide specific methods to analyze time series. This paper first presents a step-by-step description of univariate Auto-Regressive-Integrated-Moving-average (ARIMA) procedures, which are useful tools for building iterative models from empirical time series. We then develop two empirical examples in detail, based on the analysis of self-esteem and behavioral data. These examples allow us to present the two most often used models.
Alison Smith, Nikos Ntoumanis and Joan Duda
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.
Andrew J.R. Cochran, Michael E. Percival, Sara Thompson, Jenna B. Gillen, Martin J. MacInnis, Murray A. Potter, Mark A. Tarnopolsky and Martin J. Gibala
Sprint interval training (SIT), repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and exercise performance. β-alanine (β-ALA) supplementation has been shown to enhance exercise performance, which led us to hypothesize that chronic β-ALA supplementation would augment work capacity during SIT and augment training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle and performance. Twenty-four active but untrained men (23 ± 2 yr; VO2peak = 50 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1) ingested 3.2 g/day of β-ALA or a placebo (PLA) for a total of 10 weeks (n = 12 per group). Following 4 weeks of baseline supplementation, participants completed a 6-week SIT intervention. Each of 3 weekly sessions consisted of 4–6 Wingate tests, i.e., 30-s bouts of maximal cycling, interspersed with 4 min of recovery. Before and after the 6-week SIT program, participants completed a 250-kJ time trial and a repeated sprint test. Biopsies (v. lateralis) revealed that skeletal muscle carnosine content increased by 33% and 52%, respectively, after 4 and 10 weeks of β-ALA supplementation, but was unchanged in PLA. Total work performed during each training session was similar across treatments. SIT increased markers of mitochondrial content, including cytochome c oxidase (40%) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activities (19%), as well as VO2peak (9%), repeated-sprint capacity (5%), and 250-kJ time trial performance (13%), but there were no differences between treatments for any measure (p < .01, main effects for time; p > .05, interaction effects). The training stimulus may have overwhelmed any potential influence of β-ALA, or the supplementation protocol was insufficient to alter the variables to a detectable extent.
The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of an 8-month physical training period on left ventricular voltages identified by resting ECG in relation to changes in left ventricle mass in adolescent athletes.
The study encompassed 28 adolescents aged 13 years (14 boys and 14 girls) from a sports secondary school. Clinical assessment was performed on all athletes before and after 8 months of physical training.
Sokolov-Lyon voltage index, Cornell voltage index, and maximum spatial QRS vector magnitude demonstrated statistically significant decline during the study period. The specific potential of the myocardium also significantly decreased during 8 months of training. The Sokolov-Lyon voltage criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy was fulfilled in 9 athletes (32.1%) at the beginning of the observation and only in 3 athletes (10.7%) at the end of the study. On the other hand, mean left ventricular mass and mean left ventricular mass index significantly increased after long-term training. No statistically significant correlations were identified between relative changes in left ventricular mass and QRS voltages.
An early period of intensive physical training in young athletes is associated with a decrease in QRS amplitude and a relative voltage deficit over the left ventricle.