Two samples were used to assess the sex linkage of a wide range of sports. One sample rated each of 68 sports (Matteo, 1984) on perceived acceptability and likelihood of participation for both females and males. The other judged the same 68 sports for masculinity-femininity and perceived complexity. Additionally, all 68 sports were compared to Metheny's (1965) physical activities criteria for perceived appropriateness for female participation. Results indicated that masculinity-femininity judgments were similar to those obtained by Matteo (1984) and that correlations of sex linkage of sport with acceptability and likelihood of participation were high, especially for judgments about female participants. Agreement between sex-type categories for sports and Metheny's (1965) criteria was most consistent for sports receiving either the most extreme masculine or most extreme feminine ratings. It appears that perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of sports are influenced by the gender of who actually participates in those sports as well as the physical activities involved in the sports. Finally, the correlation between mean masculinity-femininity and simplicity-complexity ratings was small and not significant. Indeed, those groups of sports categorized as masculine and feminine were rated as equally complex, and both groups were judged as significantly more complex than the sports classified as neutral. This finding negates Deaux's (1984) contention that feminine tasks are inevitably judged to be simpler than masculine tasks.
Kathleen A. Csizma, Arno F. Wittig and K. Terry Schurr
James F. Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan A. Carlson, Gregory J. Norman, Brian E. Saelens, Nefertiti Durant and Barbara E. Ainsworth
Neighborhood environment attributes of walkability and access to recreation facilities have been related to physical activity and weight status, but most self-report environment measures are lengthy. The 17-item PANES (Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale) was developed to be comprehensive but brief enough for use in multipurpose surveys. The current study evaluated test-retest and alternate-form reliability of PANES items compared with multi-item subscales from the longer NEWS-A (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated).
Participants were 291 adults recruited from neighborhoods that varied in walkability in 3 US cities. Surveys were completed twice with a 27-day interval.
Test-retest ICCs for PANES items ranged from .52 to .88. Spearman correlations for the PANES single item vs NEWS-A subscale comparisons ranged from .27 to .81 (all P < .01).
PANES items related to land use mix, residential density, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetic qualities, and safety from traffic and crime were supported by correlations with NEWS-A subscales. Access to recreation facilities and street connectivity items were not supported. The brevity of PANES allows items to be included in studies or surveillance systems to expand knowledge about neighborhood environments.
Dori E. Rosenberg, Gregory J. Norman, Nicole Wagner, Kevin Patrick, Karen J. Calfas and James F. Sallis
Sedentary behavior is related to obesity, but measures of sedentary behaviors are lacking for adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) among overweight adults.
Participants were 49 adults for the 2 week test-retest reliability study (67% female, 53% white, mean age = 20) and 401 overweight women (mean age = 41, 61% white) and 441 overweight men (mean age = 44, 81% white) for the validity study. The SBQ consisted of reports of time spent in 9 sedentary behaviors. Outcomes for validity included accelerometer measured inactivity, sitting time (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and BMI. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed reliability and partial correlations assessed validity.
ICCs were acceptable for all items and the total scale (range = .51–.93). For men, there were significant relationships of SBQ items with IPAQ sitting time and BMI. For women, there were relationships between the SBQ and accelerometer inactivity minutes, IPAQ sitting time, and BMI.
The SBQ has acceptable measurement properties for use among overweight adults. Specific measures of sedentary behavior should be included in studies and population surveillance.
Craig A. Wrisberg and Richard L. Pein
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preperformance behavior and performance accuracy within the context of a competitive sporting event. Data were collected during varsity and intramural basketball games at a NCAA Division I university. The measures included length of the preshot interval and the number of free throws attempted and made by each player. From these data, the mean and within-subject standard deviation of preshot interval scores and free throw percentages were derived, and pairwise correlations among the measures were calculated. One-way MANOVA tests were performed to determine whether selected individual-difference and situational variables significantly influenced any of the measures. Of primary importance was the finding of a significant negative correlation between standard deviation of preshot interval and free throw percentage, indicating that higher percentage shooters maintained a higher level of temporal consistency in executing their preshot routines than did lower percentage shooters. Implications for the use of preshot interval data in research and intervention by sport psychology consultants are discussed.
Leilani Madrigal, Sharon Hamill and Diane L. Gill
Mental Toughness (MT), which refers to an inner focus and commitment to rise above challenges when facing adversity, is viewed as one of the most important psychological attributes in determining success in sport. However, there is little consensus on key components of MT, and existing measures vary greatly while focusing on elite athletes. The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of MT for use with college athletes. Collegiate and noncollegiate athletes (N = 271) completed the original 54-item Mental Toughness Scale (MTS) in study 1. Factor analysis (PCA) results reduced the scale to an 11-item scale, with good reliability and validity as demonstrated by its positive correlations with self-esteem and flow. A second study of college basketball players (N = 143) was conducted to establish the psychometric properties of the MTS. Study 2 demonstrated convergent, divergent and criterion validity through correlations with related measures, and a CFA provided moderate support for the MTS as a one-dimensional measure of mental toughness in sport.
Kenneth R. Fox and Charles B. Corbin
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that would permit the application of recent advances in self-esteem theory to the study of self-perception in the physical domain. Open-ended questionnaire responses were used to identify important contributors to the physical self-esteem of a college age population. Based on these data, four subdomain subscales designed to assess perceived bodily attractiveness, sports competence, physical strength, and physical conditioning were constructed along with a general physical self-worth subscale as the basis of the Physical Self-Perception Profile. The sensitivity, reliability, and stability of the subscales were supported for both genders across three independent samples. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis indicated the discriminant validity of the subdomain subscales, supporting the concept of multidimensionality within the physical domain. Zero-order correlation, partial correlation, and multiple regression analyses provided results consistent with a three-tier hierarchical structure among self-perception elements. In addition, initial predictive validity of the subdomain subscales was evidenced through their association with degree and type of involvement in physical activity.
Anne-Maree Parrish, Don Iverson, Ken Russell and Heather Yeatman
Declining levels of children’s physical activity may contribute to Australia’s increasing childhood obesity epidemic. School recess is an underutilized opportunity to increase children’s physical activity.1
Thirteen regional Australian public primary schools participated in the study (2946 children). The Children’s Activity Scanning Tool 2 (CAST2) collected observational playground physical activity data. The research also addressed: length of break, socioeconomic status (SES), gender, number of scanning days, and instrument calibration.
The proportions of Moderate or Vigorous Physically Activity (MVPA) children at the observed schools ranged from 0.4 to 0.7. The odds ratio of boys being MVPA relative to girls ranged from 0.8581 to 2.137. There were significant differences between the mean proportions of 3 days of activity (range P = .001 to P = .015) and no association between SES school groupings (deviance ratio: 0.48; P = .503). Interrater reliability for instrument calibration using Spearman correlations coefficients ranged from r = .71 to r = .99.
There were significant differences between proportions of MVPA children at the 13 schools and between male and female populations. There was no association between playground physical activity and SES. The monitoring period for CAST2 should be at least 3 days. Interrater reliability indicates that correlations between observers were consistently high.
Oanh T.H. Trinh, Nguyen Do Nguyen, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Michael J. Dibley and Adrian Bauman
The increasing prevalence of chronic lifestyle diseases in developing countries warrants reliable and valid surveillance of physical activity levels in the population. This study assesses the test-retest repeatability and criterion validity of the WHO-recommended Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in Vietnamese adults during the dry and wet seasons.
In 2007 a representative sample of 169 adults (25-64 years) was recruited to determine the GPAQ reliability and validity. GPAQ assesses time and intensity of physical activities spent during a usual week. To assess short and long term reliability, participants completed the GPAQ twice during the dry season 2 weeks apart and again 2 months later during the wet season. For validation purposes, participants wore an accelerometer during the 7 days before the first and last GPAQ assessments.
The total GPAQ score showed repeatability correlations of 0.69 after 2 weeks and of 0.55 after 2 months. Total GPAQ score and accelerometer data showed validity correlations of 0.34 and 0.20 in the dry and wet season, respectively. There was a difference in physical activity patterns between the dry and wet seasons.
GPAQ is suitable for surveillance of physical activity among adults in Vietnam.
Cátia Paixão, Ana Tavares and Alda Marques
active ( Marshall et al., 2005 ). The brief physical activity assessment tool has shown moderate reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 2,1 = .53) when applied to adult patients of general practitioners ( Marshall et al., 2005 ). Cognitive function, lung function, respiratory muscle
Dirk Krombholz, Luca Daniel, Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer and Stefan Panzer
-moment correlation was used to assess if these variables co-varied with the CoP displacement in the anterior-posterior and medio-lateral directions for the dominant and the non-dominant leg. In addition, foot length was included and the determination coefficient r 2 was calculated for the significant correlations