Surfers are a heterogeneous population with a common interest in riding waves. Surfers qualitatively describe the surfing sensation as a hybrid of meditative and athletic experience. Numerous empirical studies link both meditative experience and exercise with reduced incidence of depression and anxiety; this potentially suggests that surfers may endorse fewer symptoms of either disorder. One hundred surfers (N = 100) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and a demographics questionnaire. Results indicate that surfers reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and employed emotion-based coping responses to stressful situations significantly less than the general populace. Surfers also employed avoidance-based coping strategies more frequently than the general populace. Future study should evaluate causal relationships between surfing and incidence of depression and anxiety.
Benjamin J. Levin and Jim Taylor
In an attempt to investigate the nature of the coach-athlete relationship in a systematic way, Jowett and colleagues (e.g., Jowett & Cockerill, in press; Jowett & Meek, 2000a) employed the interpersonal constructs of Closeness, Coorientation, and Complementarity (3 Cs) to reflect coaches’ and athletes’ emotions, cognitions, and behaviors respectively. This study utilized the 3 Cs in order to examine the nature of a single typical coach-athlete dyad that experiences interpersonal conflict. The dyad was interviewed and their responses were content analyzed. The analysis revealed a marked difference in the coach’s and athlete’s perceptions about their athletic relationship and areas of emotional isolation, disagreements, and incompatibility. The findings are discussed within the 3 Cs model.
Charles H. Hillman, Bruce N. Cuthbert, Margaret M. Bradley and Peter J. Lang
Psychophysiological responses of two rival sport fan groups were assessed within the context of Lang’s biphasic theory of emotion. Twenty-four participants, placed in two groups based on their identification with local sport teams, viewed 6 pictures from 6 categories: team-relevant pleasant sport, team-irrelevant sport, team-relevant unpleasant sport, erotica, household objects, and mutilation. Fans rated appetitive sport pictures higher in pleasure and arousal compared to aversive sport pictures. Physiological measures (startle probe-P3, the startle eye-blink reflex, slow cortical potentials to picture onset, and skin conductance) differentiated both appetitive and aversive team-relevant categories from team-irrelevant pictures, and increased orbicularis oculi EMG was found only for team-relevant appetitive pictures. These results suggest there are differences between rival sport fans in response to the same pictorial stimuli, and further suggest that fans provide an ideal population in which to measure motivation toward appetitive stimuli.
Daniel Gould, Dana Bridges, Eileen Udry and Laurie Beck
This study was designed to identify coping strategies and factors thought to facilitate recovery in elite skiers who suffered season-ending injuries. Differences in the frequency that these variables were cited between unsuccessful and successful postinjury performers and between male and female participants were examined. Retrospective qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 U.S. alpine and freestyle ski team members who suffered seasonending injuries. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that 140 coping strategy raw-data themes coalesced into seven higher order dimensions: driving through; distracted self; managed emotions and thoughts; sought and used social resources; avoidance and isolation; took note and drew upon lessons learned; and other. Six higher-order facilitating factors were identified from 78 raw-data themes and included: interpersonal resources, accessible quality medical resources, fortunate circumstances, environmental resources, past experience with injury, and financial backing. The successful versus unsuccessful skier and male versus female comparisons revealed several differences between groups, especially in the use of coping strategies.
Steven L. Proctor and Candace Boan-Lenzo
This study examined the athletic status differences in reported depressive symptoms between male intercollegiate team sport athletes (n= 66) and male nonathletes (n = 51) enrolled at one of two public universities in the Southeastern United States, while controlling for preferred (task-oriented and emotion-oriented) coping strategies. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that the athletes reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms than nonathletes while controlling for coping strategy selection (p< .05). In terms of the actual prevalence rates of depressive symptoms, 29.4% of the nonathletes met the criterion for possible depression compared with only 15.6% of the athletes. Overall, athletic participation in an intercollegiate team sport appears related to lower levels of depression. The potentially distress-buffering aspects of athletic involvement and implications for future research are discussed.
Christopher M. Janelle
The theory of ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994) is reviewed in the context of typical issues confronted by sport psychology professionals. The theory maintains that mental control is achieved through the interaction of an operating process directed toward achieving thoughts, emotions, and actions that are consistent with particular goal states, and a monitoring process for identifying inconsistencies with the goal state, insuring that any threat to the operating process is recognized and handled accordingly. Moreover, mental control normally functions at a satisfactory level, but under conditions of cognitive load, the likelihood of effective self-regulation is reduced. Given the load-inducing circumstances of sport and exercise participation, reasons for the occasional failure of mental control in these settings are offered. Traditional and current sport psychology issues and interventions are interpreted considering the theory of ironic processes, with specific reference to imagery, self-confidence, pain perception, mood state regulation, anxiety, and attention.
As part of their “Revolution in Motion” advertising campaign in 1987, Nike introduced the controversial television commericial that featured, as a sound track, the 1968 Beatles song Revolution. Located within a contemporary framework of time and place, emotion and message, politics and consumption, and capitalism and pleasure, the commercial can be articulated to a critical debate that has increasingly come to determine our political and affective lives. This paper focuses on the nature of this debate as it has emerged over the last decade and addresses, among other things, the legacy of the 1960s, the rise of the fitness movement, the insertion of the Baby Boom generation into the marketplace, the definition of American quality of life, and the rise of the political New Right.
This study uses qualitative interviews with 29 parents of horseback riding daughters aged 10–23 years old to explore parents’ perceptions of risk and their risk management strategies, as their daughters engage in horse sports and recreation. First, parents are keenly aware of risks in equestrian sports and liken them to risks from automobile accidents and other high-risk sports. Second, parents manage these risks by working diligently to enhance safety and manage their own emotions. Third, they willingly assume these risks as a part of their fundamental commitment to honor their daughters’ desires, natural skills, and dreams as equestrian athletes. I situate these findings within the theoretical literature on risky play within a cultural context of condemnation of parents’ permissiveness about risk-taking.
Meghann Lloyd, Greg Reid and Marcel Bouffard
The research purpose was to examine the domain specific self-regulatory skills of boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, n = 10) compared to peers without DCD (n = 10). A sport specific problem-solving task (hockey shot) and an educational problem-solving task (peg solitaire) were compared. Guided by Zimmerman’s (2000) social cognitive model of self-regulation, participants were taught to think aloud. Codes were developed under five categories: goals, knowledge, emotion, monitoring, and evaluation. The quantity of verbalization was similar in both groups but differences were found in verbalization quality. Results indicate that boys with DCD have emotional and planning differences on the hockey task, but only planning differences were evident on the peg solitaire task.
Jamie L. Shapiro, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius and Judy L. Van Raalte
The purposes of this study were to investigate patterns of emotional response to reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee following sport injury and to examine the extent to which neuroticism differed across patterns of adjustment. Participants were 73 patients (51% recreational athletes, 46% competitive athletes, 3% nonathletes) who had ACL reconstruction surgery and who had low levels of negative mood before surgery. Participants completed measures of personality and negative mood before surgery and completed daily assessments of negative mood for 6 weeks postsurgery. The negative mood of participants was classified into three patterns for two different time periods. Participants with patterns of resilience outnumbered those with patterns of disturbance. Participants with patterns involving mood disturbance one week after surgery had significantly higher presurgery neuroticism levels. Practitioners should target individuals with high neuroticism before surgery for emotion management interventions to prevent mood disturbance following ACL surgery.