This study was based on Chelladurai’s (1978, 2001, 2007) Multidimensional Model of Leadership and was designed to determine whether athletes’ preferred coaching behavior would vary as a function of their psychological characteristics. Study participants (N = 195 collegiate athletes) completed questionnaires to assess their sport anxiety (SAS), motivational orientation (SMS), as well as their preferred coaching styles (LSS) and feedback patterns (CFQ). Canonical correlation procedures revealed that athletes who were high in self-determined forms of motivation and in somatic trait anxiety preferred coaches who exhibited a democratic leadership style and who provided high amounts of training, social support, and positive and informational feedback while athletes who were high in amotivation indicated a preference for coaches who exhibited an autocratic style and who provided high amounts of punishment-oriented feedback. In addition, high cognitive sport anxiety was linked to greater preference for high frequencies of positive and informational feedback and lower preference for punishment-oriented feedback.
Thelma S. Horn, Patrick Bloom, Katie M. Berglund and Stacie Packard
Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase
actual movement outcomes ( Schack, 2012 ). Examining the MRs of a specific motor task in LTM allows for detecting motor-planning faults, tracking development, increasing feedback efficiency, and, subsequently, improving performance ( Braun et al., 2007 ). Structural dimensional analysis of mental
Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer
techniques combined with feedback modality differentiation and precision (eg, dosage specifications, adding auditory or tactile feedback to increase sensory region activity) may have future application as well as new yet to be imagined interventions. Conclusion The advent of low-cost VR technologies that
James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang
-centered focus of the assessment. The pilot version of the PROKAT, including all revisions, deletions, and newly developed items, contained 39 total items. An additional 3 open-ended items were added to obtain feedback from participants about the measure. Table 1 List of New Items Developed for Pilot Version of
Andrew J.A. Hall, Leigh Jones and Russell J.J. Martindale
. Subsequently, the aim of the present research was to evaluate the efficacy of utilizing the TDEQ as tool to help coaches and support staff gain feedback, structure an intervention, and evaluate impact over a 12-month period of an international elite TDE, namely the Hong Kong Rugby Union’s Elite Rugby Program
Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton
scientists can audit the outcomes of decisions made by the organization. By tracking outcomes, a feedback loop can be established to identify the types of decisions that are being made well and the situations where poor decisions persist. A secondary audit layer can examine the decision-making process
Stephanie Mueller, Montse C. Ruiz and Stiliani Ani Chroni
) adapting their own emotional and behavioural responses , (2) providing verbal and non-verbal positive reinforcement , and (3) giving performance-related feedback . The coaches elaborated on how they adapted their emotional and behavioural responses according to the players’ states and performances to
Rob J. Rotunda and Stuart Ryan
the tae kwon do and control groups completed the following assessment instruments, except for feedback/satisfaction questions that only students in the tae kwon do group received based on their tae kwon do experience. In order to assess various facets of psychological, emotional, and interpersonal
Andrew Hawkins, Robert L. Wiegand and Dennis K. Landin
Research indicates that feedback given to teacher trainees is often vague and incomplete. Frequently the feedback fails to provide specific strategies designed to improve subsequent teaching performances. This investigation developed a taxonomy of feedback strategies based on the content of data-based feedback provided by teacher educators to teacher trainees in peer teaching. Strategies were categorized to correspond with specific data situations frequently observed in the lessons. A discussion of the rationale for the strategies, coupled with descriptive data on the frequency of strategy selection, revealed much about the interpretive model that teacher educators may superimpose on data. Additional study on the empirical validation of the taxonomy is warranted subsequent to this descriptive/logical point of departure.
Robert R.A. van Doorn and Pieter J.A. Unema
The present study showed that movement execution depends on the direct visual environment. We replicated findings of an earlier study that showed a difference between real time information via a trace of the unfolding trajectory, and cursor feedback constituting real time information about the changing movement location. Detailed analyses involving subdividing a movement into four successive sections revealed that movements governed by trace feedback were typically slower and required more feedback guidance near the occurrence of peak velocity. The present study further showed that movement behavior under the two visual modes diverged even more due to the presence of a static object positioned within the action area of the movement. Movements in the trace feedback condition were affected by the presence of an object in the second half of the movement trajectory when the movement reached peak deceleration. Discussion focuses on the differences between the two modes of online visual information.