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Susan A. Carlson, Roxanna Guide, Thomas L. Schmid, Latetia V. Moore, Danielle T. Barradas and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Street-scale urban design policies are recommended to increase physical activity in communities. Our purpose was to examine U.S. public support for local street-scale urban design features and policies.

Methods:

Analysis is based on a cross-sectional national sample of adults (n = 4682) participating in the 2006 HealthStyles mail survey.

Results:

About 57% of adults rated local street-scale urban design as highly important in determining the amount of physical activity they obtain. Adjusted odds of rating neighborhood features as having high importance were higher in people aged ≥65 years versus those <65 and minority racial/ethnic groups versus non-Hispanic whites. Two-thirds of adults were willing to take civic action to support local street-scale urban design policy. Adjusted odds of being willing to take any action versus none was higher in non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites, was higher in those with household incomes ≥$60,000 versus ≤$15,000 per year, and increased as education and perceived importance of neighborhood features increased.

Conclusions:

There are high levels of public support for local street-scale urban design policies; however, demographic differences exist in the level of support. These differences are important considerations for policymakers and for those designing community programs targeting street-scale urban design features and policies.

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Joan B. Landry and Melinda A. Solmon

Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and older women and minority populations are especially at risk in this regard. Many earlier studies that have addressed physical inactivity, however, focused primarily on European-American males. Although recent research has begun to include more diverse populations, there continues to be a need for further study of specific at-risk populations. This study examined self-determination in the regulation of exercise behavior in a sample of 105 African American women. They completed the Stages of Exercise Scale and the Behavior Regulation Exercise Questionnaire. Consistent with theoretical predictions, individuals who had been active over a period of time were more self-determined in their behavior regulation. Exercising to achieve an outcome emerged as the most influential factor in discriminating active participants from inactive ones. This study supports the use of this theoretical approach in gaining an understanding of the types of motivation most likely to contribute to the initiation and maintenance of exercise behavior change in African American women.

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Jocelyn S. Carter, Sabrina Karczewski, Draycen D. DeCator and Alescia M. Hollowell

Background:

Children who engage in regular physical activity are protected from developing behavioral problems at home and school, but many children do not have the opportunity to participate in regular physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a noncurricular school-based physical activity program resulted in reductions in children’s psychological problems in 2 domains: internalizing (eg, depression) and externalizing (eg, aggression) and whether these effects varied according to ethnicity, gender, and baseline psychological symptoms.

Methods:

One hundred and eleven third-grade students (mean age = 8.47; 55% African American, 42% Latino) from 4 schools participated in the study. Children in 2 schools received the Work to Play physical activity intervention during the study (intervention condition) and children in the other 2 schools did not receive the program until after the study was complete (waitlist control condition). Teachers and parents reported on children’s psychological symptoms at baseline and at follow-up approximately 9 months later.

Results:

Regression analyses showed that children who participated in the program had fewer internalizing symptoms at follow-up. Ethnicity moderated intervention effects with significant decreases in internalizing symptoms for African American, but not Hispanic participants. Neither gender nor baseline psychological symptoms moderated the program’s effectiveness.

Conclusions:

The Work-to-Play intervention program appeared to be effective in reducing internalizing symptoms for ethnic minority participants who are at the greatest risk for psychological problems.

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Sunday Azagba and Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

Background:

In spite of the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Canadian population. This paper examines leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPA) and its correlates among older Canadian adults.

Methods:

We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with 45,265 individuals aged 50–79 years. A logistic regression is estimated and separate regressions are performed for males and females.

Results:

About 50% of older Canadian adults are physically inactive. Higher odds of physical inactivity are found among current smokers (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.37–1.69), those who binge-drink (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11–1.39), visible minorities (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.39–1.85), immigrants (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.02–1.25), individuals with high perceived life stress (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.31–1.66). We also find lower odds of physical inactivity among: males (OR = 0.89, CI = 0.83 to 0.96), those with strong social interaction (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.66–0.77), with general life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.58–0.76) and individuals with more education. Similar results are obtained from separate regressions for males and females.

Conclusions:

Identifying the correlates of LTPA among older adults can inform useful intervention measures.

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Sergio J. Ibáñez, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sebastián Feu

The purpose of this study was to analyze scientific production on the topic of sport coaches in Spain, using doctoral theses included in the Spanish Ordered Theses TESEO database. Productivity was analyzed based on 17 variables grouped into contextual information, object of study, classification criteria, research design and research procedure. Sixty indexed theses were studied from the time period of 1996 to 2017, showing a progressive growth of scientific production in theses during this time. The role of women in the direction and writing of theses still represents a minority. The majority of theses are classified in the scientific disciplines of Sport Pedagogy and Exercise Psychology. The results show that quantitative methodological approaches predominate with descriptive research on populations using surveys or systematic observation. The most commonly used type of sampling was intentional with a questionnaire to collect data. The results show the profile of this research topic, the methodological approach, and the research tendencies as well as underlining the basic lines for development.

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Jennifer L Kuk, Shahnaz Davachi, Andrea M. Kriska, Michael C. Riddell and Edward W. Gregg

This article briefly summarizes the “Pre-Diabetes Detection and Intervention Symposium” that described ongoing and past pre-diabetes interventions, and outlined some considerations when deciding to target specific populations with pre-diabetes. The success of type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention clinical trials provides clear evidence that healthy lifestyle change can prevent the development of T2D in a cost effective manner in high risk individuals. However, who to target and what cut-points should be used to identify individuals who would qualify for these T2D prevention programs are not simple questions. More stringent cut-offs are more efficient in preventing T2D, but less equitable. Interventions will likely need to be adapted and made more economical for local communities and health care centers if they are to be adopted universally. Further, they may need to be adapted to meet the specific needs of certain high-risk populations such as ethnic minorities. The Chronic Disease Management & Prevention Program for Diverse Populations in Alberta and the Pre-diabetes Detection and Physical Activity Intervention Delivery project in Toronto represent 2 examples of specialized interventions that are targeted at certain high risk populations. To reverse the current T2D trends will require continued efforts to develop and refine T2D prevention interventions.

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10.1123/ssj.1.2.150 Minority Managers in Professional Baseball David Fabianic 6 1984 1 2 163 171 10.1123/ssj.1.2.163 Sportpolitics: Los Angeles, 1984 — “The Olympic Tradition Continues” Harry Edwards * 6 1984 1 2 172 183 10.1123/ssj.1.2.172 The Creation of Appropriate Integration Opportunities in

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Contact with Sexual Minorities George B. Cunningham * Nicole Melton * 9 2012 29 3 283 305 10.1123/ssj.29.3.283 Saturday Night’s Alright for Tweeting: Cultural Citizenship, Collective Discussion, and the New Media Consumption/Production of Hockey Day in Canada Mark Norman * 9 2012 29 3 306 324 10

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Report & Minority Report Athena Yiamouyiannis 4 2003 12 12 1 1 127 127 130 130 10.1123/wspaj.12.1.127 NAGWS 4 2003 12 12 1 1 131 131 132 132 10.1123/wspaj.12.1.131 Book Review Book Review Robert W. Pettitt MS, ATC, CSCS Cherie Kroh MS, CSCS, HFI 4 2003 12 12 1 1 133 133 134 134 10.1123/wspaj.12

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-Concept of Obese Novice Adult Female Runners Brigid Byrd * Tamara Hew-Butler * Jeffrey J. Martin * 4 2016 24 24 1 1 54 54 59 59 10.1123/wspaj.2014-0057 Is Authenticity and Integrity Possible for Sexual Minority Athletes? Lesbian Student-Athlete Experiences of U.S. NCAA Division I Sport Jamie M. Fynes