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Evelyn B. Kelly, Deborah Parra-Medina, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda, Terry L. Conway, Larry S. Webber, Jared B. Jobe, Scott Going and Russell R. Pate

Background:

A need exists to better understand multilevel influences on physical activity among diverse samples of girls. This study examined correlates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescent girls from different racial/ethnic backgrounds.

Methods:

1,180 6th grade girls (24.5% black, 15.7% Hispanic, and 59.8% white) completed a supervised self-administered questionnaire that measured hypothesized correlates of PA. MVPA data were collected for 6 days using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine correlates of PA in each racial/ethnic group.

Results:

Hispanic girls (n = 185) engaged in 21.7 minutes of MVPA per day, black girls (n = 289) engaged in 19.5 minutes of MVPA per day, and white girls (n = 706) engaged in 22.8 minutes of MVPA per day. Perceived transportation barriers (+; P = .010) were significantly and positively related to MVPA for Hispanic girls. For black girls, Body Mass Index (BMI) (–; P = .005) and social support from friends (+; P = .006) were significant correlates of MVPA. For white girls, BMI (–; P < .001), barriers (–; P = .012), social support from friends (+; P = .010), participation in school sports (+; P = .009), and community sports (+; P = .025) were significant correlates of MVPA. Explained variance ranged from 30% to 35%.

Conclusions:

Correlates of MVPA varied by racial/ethnic groups. Effective interventions in ethnically diverse populations may require culturally tailored strategies.

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Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Luis Oliveira, Victor Matsudo, Emily Mire, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

Studies have found an association between television (TV) viewing and physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TV viewing and physical activity in 10-year-old Brazilian children.

Methods:

The sample consisted of 485 children. Self-reported TV viewing on weekdays and weekends was assessed by questionnaire. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor the range of physical activity intensities (including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB) and steps/day over 7 days.

Results:

Daily MVPA was highest among children viewing TV <1 hour/day (69 min) compared with children viewing 1 to 2 hours/day (61 min), 3 to 4 hours/day (55 min) and ≥ 5 hours/day (59 min) on weekdays (P = .0015). Differences in MVPA were not observed across TV categories on weekends. The prevalence of reaching 60 min/day of MVPA and 12,000 steps/day on weekdays was significantly greater in children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day (51.7% and 23.5%, respectively) compared with those viewing > 2 hours/day (38.6%, P = .0058; and 15.1%, P = .0291, respectively). There was no difference in SB across TV viewing categories.

Conclusion:

Time spent in MVPA and the frequency of meeting MVPA guidelines were significantly higher among children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day of TV on weekdays compared with those viewing more.

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Cindy H.P. Sit, Jessica W.K. Lam and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Interactive electronic games have recently been popularized and are believed to help promote children’s physical activity (PA). The purpose of the study was to examine preferences and PA levels during interactive and online electronic games among overweight and nonoverweight boys and girls.

Methods:

Using a modification of the SOFIT, we systematically observed 70 Hong Kong Chinese children (35 boys, 35 girls; 50 nonoverweight, 20 overweight), age 9 to 12 years, during 2 60-minute recreation sessions and recorded their game mode choices and PA levels. During Session One children could play either an interactive or an online electronic bowling game and during Session Two they could play an interactive or an online electronic running game.

Results:

Children chose to play the games during 94% of session time and split this time between interactive (52%) and online (48%) versions. They engaged in significantly more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during interactive games than their online electronic versions (70% vs. 2% of game time). Boys and nonoverweight children expended relatively more energy during the interactive games than girls and overweight children, respectively.

Conclusions:

New-generation interactive games can facilitate physical activity in children, and given the opportunity children may select them over sedentary versions.

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Leanne Liggett, Andrew Gray, Winsome Parnell, Rob McGee and Yvette McKenzie

Background:

Objective measures, such as accelerometers, are increasingly being used to measure physical activity (PA) levels in children, and the use of validated and reliable instruments is desirable when measuring the effectiveness of programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the New Lifestyles NL-1000 accelerometer among preschoolers using a modified version of the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS).

Methods:

Fourteen preschoolers wore the NL-1000 at their waist while the device measured activity levels [in seconds of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)]. They were also videoed for approximately 12 minutes while participating in normal activities at an early childhood center. At approximately 2-minute intervals, activity level readings derived from the NL-1000 were recorded. The video footage was analyzed using a modified CARS technique and the CARS scores compared with data obtained from the accelerometer.

Results:

Within subject reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (0.58 for CARS and 0.59 for NL-1000). Furthermore, 95% of the variation in CARS could be explained by variation in the accelerometer counts, with 2.4% of the variation being participant-specific.

Conclusion:

The NL-1000 is a sufficiently reliable and valid tool for assessing MVPA in preschoolers.

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Cheryl A. Howe, Marcus W. Barr, Brett C. Winner, Jenelynn R. Kimble and Jason B. White

Background:

Although promoted for weight loss, especially in young adults, it has yet to be determined if the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensity of the newest active video games (AVGs) qualifies as moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; > 3.0 METs). This study compared the PAEE and intensity of AVGs to traditional seated video games (SVGs).

Methods:

Fifty-three young adults (18−35 y; 27 females) volunteered to play 6 video games (4 AVGs, 2 SVGs). Anthropometrics and resting metabolism were measured before testing. While playing the games (6−10 min) in random order against a playmate, the participants wore a portable metabolic analyzer for measuring PAEE (kcal/min) and intensity (METs). A repeated-measures ANOVA compared the PAEE and intensity across games with sex, BMI, and PA status as main effects.

Results:

The intensity of AVGs (6.1 ± 0.2 METs) was significantly greater than SVGs (1.8 ± 0.1 METs). AVGs elicited greater PAEE than SVGs in all participants (5.3 ± 0.2 vs 0.8 ± 0.0 kcal/min); PAEE during the AVGs was greater in males and overweight participants compared with females and healthy weight participants (p’s < .05).

Conclusions:

The newest AVGs do qualify as MVPA and can contribute to the recommended dose of MVPA for weight management in young adults.

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Britni R. Belcher, Richard P. Moser, Kevin W. Dodd, Audie Atienza, Rachel Ballard-Barbash and David Berrigan

Background:

Discrepancies in self-report and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) may influence relationships with obesity-related biomarkers in youth.

Methods:

Data came from 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for 2174 youth ages 12 to 19. Biomarkers were: body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), BMI percentile, height and waist circumference (WC, cm), triceps and subscapular skinfolds (mm), systolic & diastolic blood pressure (BP, mmHg), high-density lipoprotein (HDL, mg/dL), total cholesterol (mg/dL), triglycerides (mg/dL), insulin (μU/ml), C-reactive protein (mg/dL), and glycohemoglobin (%). In separate sex-stratified models, each biomarker was regressed on accelerometer variables [mean MVPA (min/day), nonsedentary counts, and MVPA bouts (mean min/day)] and self-reported MVPA. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, SES, physical limitations, and asthma.

Results:

In boys, correlations between self-report and accelerometer MVPA were stronger (boys: r = 0.14−0.21; girls: r = 0.07−0.11; P < .010) and there were significant associations with BMI, WC, triceps skinfold, and SBP and accelerometer MVPA (P < .01). In girls, there were no significant associations between biomarkers and any measures of physical activity.

Conclusions:

Physical activity measures should be selected based on the outcome of interest and study population; however, associations between PA and these biomarkers appear to be weak regardless of the measure used.

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Michael W. Beets, Aaron Beighle and Greg Welk

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Ready for Recess: an elementary school recess intervention targeting staff training (ST) and providing recreational equipment (EQ).

Methods:

Ready for Recess had 4 intervention schools: 1) EQ+ST, 2) EQ, 3) ST, and 4) control. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with accelerometers at the four schools in 257 3rd- to 6th-grade children. Random intercept models for overweight/obese (OWOB) and healthy weight (HW) for boys and girls separately, examined change in percentage of time spent in MVPA during recess across EQ+ST, EQ, and ST compared with the control from baseline to postintervention.

Results:

HW boys receiving EQ+ST increased MVPA by 19.4%, OWOB boys receiving ST increased MVPA by 4.5%, OWOB girls receiving EQ-ST increased MVPA by 6.0%, while HW girls receiving EQ decreased MVPA by 13.6% in comparison with the control.

Conclusions:

Ready for Recess represents a possible means to increase MVPA in OWOB girls/boys, populations least likely to meet MVPA recommendations. However, the effect of the intervention was not uniform across all subgroups.

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Danielle Arigo, Paul Rohde, Heather Shaw and Eric Stice

Background:

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes.

Methods:

Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m2). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear).

Results:

Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = –5.48, P < .01). Baseline self-report scores for both impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance regarding engaging in unhealthy behaviors negatively predicted MVPA over time. Participants higher (vs. lower) in baseline impulsiveness (B = –6.89, P = .03) and dissonance (B = –4.10, P = .04) began the study with more MVPA minutes, but showed sharper declines over time.

Conclusions:

Targeted MVPA-focused intervention for students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.

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Andrea Wendt Böhm, Grégore Iven Mielke, Maurício Feijó da Cruz, Virgílio Viana Ramires and Fernando C. Wehrmeister

Background:

Physical inactivity in elderly is a public health problem. The purpose of this study is to describe and test the association between social support and leisure-time physical activity among the elderly.

Methods:

A cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,285 subjects (60+ years old) living in a city in southern Brazil was carried out in 2014. Physical activity practice was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [leisure domain: at least 150 minutes per week of walking + moderate physical activity + 2(vigorous physical activity)], while social support was measured using the Physical Activity Social Support Scale.

Results:

The prevalence of elderly who reached the recommendations of leisure-time physical activity was 18.4%. The elderly persons who had the company of family or friends to walk had a 2.45 times higher prevalence of reaching the recommendations of physical activity in leisure than those who did not. Those who had company of friends to practice moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were 3.23 times more likely to reach physical activity recommendations than their counterparts. The least common social support was the joint practice for walking and for MVPA.

Conclusions:

Strategies that incentivize family members and friends to provide social support to the elderly for physical activity focusing on joint practice must be encouraged.

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Alex C. Garn, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Jeffrey Martin, Erin Centeio, Bo Shen, Noel Kulik, Cheryl Somers and Nate McCaughtry

This study investigated a reciprocal effects model (REM) of children’s body fat self-concept and physical self-concept, and objectively measured school physical activity at different intensities. Grade four students (N = 376; M age = 9.07, SD = .61; 55% boys) from the midwest region of the United States completed measures of physical self-concept and body fat self-concept, and wore accelerometers for three consecutive school days at the beginning and end of one school year. Findings from structural equation modeling analyses did not support reciprocal effects. However, children’s body fat self-concept predicted future physical self-concept and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Multigroup analyses explored the moderating role of weight status, sex, ethnicity, and sex*ethnicity within the REM. Findings supported invariance, suggesting that the observed relations were generalizable for these children across demographic groups. Links between body fat self-concept and future physical self-concept and MVPA highlight self-enhancing effects that can promote children’s health and well-being.