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Chad Van Ramshorst and Woochol Joseph Choi

back, pelvis, knee, ankle, and foot, 4 – 6 , 14 – 18 and the pathology specific to the knee may include stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome, muscle strains, and ligament sprains. 5 , 15 – 17 Although no research data are available to provide further understanding of the cause of these injuries

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Roel De Ridder, Tine Willems, Jos Vanrenterghem, Ruth Verrelst, Cedric De Blaiser and Philip Roosen

landing, they had to place their hands immediately on their pelvis and maintain balance for at least 5 seconds. For the actual testing procedure, 5 successful trials were registered for each of the 2 jump tasks. Trials were discarded if participants did not “stick” the landing, removed their hands from

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John H. Hollman, Tyler A. Berling, Ellen O. Crum, Kelsie M. Miller, Brent T. Simmons and James W. Youdas

distal calf and secured to the plinth. An additional strap was secured around the pelvis to stabilize the back and pelvis and minimize utilization of extraneous muscles during MVIC testing. Participants flexed their knee isometrically against resistance at approximately 20° of knee flexion. Three 7

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Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl

plates with 4 retroreflective marker clusters were attached to the torso and pelvis, as well as bilateral thighs, shanks, and heels of the shoes for segment tracking during motion trials. Once markers were attached in the proper locations, a 3-second standing calibration trial was collected. Calibration

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Mohammad H. Izadi Farhadi, Foad Seidi, Hooman Minoonejad and Abbey C. Thomas

pelvis kinematics with mode of locomotion . Gait Posture . 2009 ; 29 ( 3 ): 494 – 498 . PubMed ID: 19124245 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.11.011 2. Been E , Kalichman L . Lumbar lordosis . Spine J . 2014 ; 14 ( 1 ): 87 – 97 . PubMed ID: 24095099 doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.464 24095099 3

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity of the participants. Locations of the markers were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system (Vicon Motion System Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom) at 120 Hz. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured by 2 force plates (Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH) at

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

so when imbalances occur, alterations in mechanical alignment and load affect the kinetic chain. For example, muscle tightness of the hamstrings pulls the ipsilateral innominate bone of the pelvis posteriorly, shortening the abdominal muscles. In return, the erector spinae and hip flexors become

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

were flexed to 85°. Participants were instructed to perform STS at a self-selected pace while their arms hanging at their sides. Then, they were asked to sit on the stool for 6 s. 5 Cervical spine, upper thoracic spine (T1–T6), midthoracic spine (T7–T12), and lumbar spine Pelvis Torso sagittal ROM

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

differences could have led to differences in the EMG activity. Gluteus Medius The EMG activity of the GMED ranged from 26.3% (13.4%) to 54.6% (26.1%) MVIC (Table  6 ) during the 8 directions of the SEBT. The highest activity was observed in the medial direction because, during the task, the pelvis of the

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

variable in segment couplings involving the knee joint than healthy runners. Seay and colleagues ( 2011 ) observed systematic decreases in coordination variability in runners with low back pain. Coordination variability between the pelvis and trunk was lower in runners with current low back pain compared