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Chad Van Ramshorst and Woochol Joseph Choi

back, pelvis, knee, ankle, and foot, 4 – 6 , 14 – 18 and the pathology specific to the knee may include stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome, muscle strains, and ligament sprains. 5 , 15 – 17 Although no research data are available to provide further understanding of the cause of these injuries

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Roel De Ridder, Tine Willems, Jos Vanrenterghem, Ruth Verrelst, Cedric De Blaiser and Philip Roosen

landing, they had to place their hands immediately on their pelvis and maintain balance for at least 5 seconds. For the actual testing procedure, 5 successful trials were registered for each of the 2 jump tasks. Trials were discarded if participants did not “stick” the landing, removed their hands from

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

were flexed to 85°. Participants were instructed to perform STS at a self-selected pace while their arms hanging at their sides. Then, they were asked to sit on the stool for 6 s. 5 Cervical spine, upper thoracic spine (T1–T6), midthoracic spine (T7–T12), and lumbar spine Pelvis Torso sagittal ROM

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Scott W. Ducharme and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

variable in segment couplings involving the knee joint than healthy runners. Seay and colleagues ( 2011 ) observed systematic decreases in coordination variability in runners with low back pain. Coordination variability between the pelvis and trunk was lower in runners with current low back pain compared

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Kunal Bhanot, Navpreet Kaur, Lori Thein Brody, Jennifer Bridges, David C. Berry and Joshua J. Ode

differences could have led to differences in the EMG activity. Gluteus Medius The EMG activity of the GMED ranged from 26.3% (13.4%) to 54.6% (26.1%) MVIC (Table  6 ) during the 8 directions of the SEBT. The highest activity was observed in the medial direction because, during the task, the pelvis of the

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Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio and David Barbado

19 : (1) lumbopelvic postural control tests, based on clinical concepts of spine stability/instability (eg, “the ability to control motion of the lumbar spine and pelvis relative to an arbitrarily defined neutral position”) 20 and measuring the ability to maintain a given lumbopelvic position in

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Shiho Goto, Naoko Aminaka and Phillip A. Gribble

extension for GMAX, hip adduction for AL, and knee extension for VM 3 times for 5 seconds in each muscle with a 2-minute interval between trials. The GMED MVIC was measured with participants in the side-lying position on a treatment table with the testing limb on top, while the pelvis was stabilized with a

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Chen Deng, Jason C. Gillette and Timothy R. Derrick

Review Board. Body mass, height, and right lower extremity segment lengths, widths, and circumferences were measured. Eighteen reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks of the trunk, pelvis, and right lower extremity with a minimum of 3 markers/segment: toe, heel for the foot segment

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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

lower extremity, pelvis/spine, or upper extremity during this period. Those with nonmusculoskeletal injuries, such as concussions or skin lacerations, were not excluded. Furthermore, those with a documented diagnosis of any one or more possible confounding conditions were completely excluded from the

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Nicola Relph and Katie Small

average was taken. This task is correlated to a forward running technique. 20 Lower-Limb Flexibility Two experienced athletic trainers took flexibility measurements on both legs, with consistent roles in each protocol. The pelvis was stabilized to avoid compensatory movements in hip measurements. The