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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

running trials, participants were asked to complete a 5-minute warm-up on the treadmill at their self-selected long run pace. Retroreflective markers were placed on the right lower extremity and pelvis based on a previously published marker convention. 26 A 1-second static calibration trial was recorded

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Sunghoon Shin and Jacob J. Sosnoff

, Harrison, & Troyanovich, 1999 ). For example, Bolin et al. ( 2000 ) reported that persons with SCI have impaired balance with a C-shaped sitting posture and a posteriorly tilted pelvis (about 15°) compared with noninjured persons in a neutral position. In addition, Andersson et al. ( 1974 ) showed that the

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John R. Harry, Leland A. Barker, Jeffrey D. Eggleston and Janet S. Dufek

position after landing. No more than 11 trials were needed per participant to successfully complete the required 8 trials. A 4-segment model was built from the raw marker trajectories in the Visual 3D software suite (C-Motion Inc, Germantown, MD). Specifically, the model included the pelvis, thigh, leg

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

-ramped impeding force protocol (Ramp) that increased at a rate of 1%BW/s until the subjects reached the end point criterion, an inexorable 0.35-m posterior displacement of the subject’s pelvis. BW = body weight. We recorded trajectories of 31 retroreflective markers (100 Hz) on the pelvis and legs using a 14

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Rebecca L. Krupenevich and Ross H. Miller

positive power. Alternatively, pelvis position, rather than trunk position, is also suggested to affect age-related differences in hip position, 11 , 20 and in effect, hip kinetics, and has a more direct effect on hip angle than trunk position. Manipulating the pelvis angle during gait is challenging, but

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik and Phillip Gribble

flexibility and a decreased ability to transition between walking speeds compared with nonfallers. 29 Age-related declines in flexibility may contribute to falls by limiting the ability to physically adapt to internal and external perturbations. Age-related reductions in arm swing and head–trunk–pelvis

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Chen Deng, Jason C. Gillette and Timothy R. Derrick

Review Board. Body mass, height, and right lower extremity segment lengths, widths, and circumferences were measured. Eighteen reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks of the trunk, pelvis, and right lower extremity with a minimum of 3 markers/segment: toe, heel for the foot segment

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Adam E. Jagodinsky, Christopher Wilburn, Nick Moore, John W. Fox and Wendi H. Weimar

&L Engineering, Tustin, CA) were attached bilaterally on the pelvis, thigh, shank, and foot of each participant for motion capture (Table  2 ). Calibration markers were utilized to estimate joint centers from a static calibration trial and were removed prior to walking trials. Measurement of segment motion was

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Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai and Masahiro Iwata

during stretching (B) as seen from the left side. (A) The seat of the dynamometer was maximally raised, and a wedge-shaped cushion was inserted between the trunk and backrest, creating a seat face-back angle of approximately 60°. The subjects were seated in this position and their chest, pelvis, and

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Il-young Yu, Dong-kyu Lee, Myoung-Joo Kang and Jae-seop Oh

upper arm with opposite hand, but because it is supported by the attachment cuff of isokinetic dynamometer subjects supported the above the distal part of upper arm during SWE in this study (Figure  1C ). The trunk and pelvis of each subject was fixed with a strap so that the compensatory movements of