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Sebastián Feu, Javier García-Rubio, Antonio Antúnez and Sergio Ibáñez

regional governments delegate the organization of sport in the Sports Federations. Sports federations organize amateur and professional sports. In some sports, such as soccer, basketball, and handball the professional leagues organize the competition. Democracy in Spain was re-established in 1979, growing

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Zachary W. Arth, Darrin J. Griffin and Andrew C. Billings

Long a frequently discussed and controversial topic in the United States, immigration is experiencing a recent upsurge in media relevance ( Hanna, 2018 ). Somewhat surprisingly, one area where immigration is not discussed as frequently is in professional sports ( Anderson, 2016 ). This could be

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Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos

professional sports organizations use Pinterest as a communications and relationship-marketing tool . Communication & Sport, 3 ( 4 ), 434 – 457 . doi:10.1177/2167479513518044 10.1177/2167479513518044 Hambrick , M.E. , Simmons , J.M. , Greenhalgh , G.P. , & Greenwell , T.C. ( 2010 ). Understanding

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Anthony Krautmann, Peter von Allmen and Stephen J.K. Walters

. The existing literature on player–agent relationships in professional sports is fairly thin. This is likely the case because, as discussed in Solow and von Allmen ( 2016 ), the agent’s services are assumed to be simply a fixed (although necessary) cost of transacting—in contrast to the product of an

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Stéphanie Turgeon, Kelsey Kendellen, Sara Kramers, Scott Rathwell and Martin Camiré

professional sports or the Olympics. As we close in on the third decade of the 21st century, the age-old question remains as pertinent (and loaded) as ever. Do we want a competitive and talent-driven sport system that primarily serves the interests of the select and gifted few or one in which access is

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

implications this has for professional sports were observed by Barnsley and Thompson ( 1988 ) when they reported that adolescent and professional ice hockey players in the NHL had birth dates heavily skewed toward the beginning of the selection year. Wayne Gretzky is again an example of the phenomenon, being

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Erin Morris, Ryan Vooris and Tara Q. Mahoney

college athletics, including coaching, administration, and governance. For instance, at the college level, only 22.3% of athletic directors are women ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2014 ). The representation issue also extends to the professional sports world. While 46.8% of the U.S. workforce is female ( U

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

of vessels and, thus, inflammatory processes, 17 reducing muscle pain. 18 Although acute and repetitive CWI were routinely used to accelerate postexercise recovery, 9 , 19 its effect on biochemical markers in professional sports players, in particular, basketball players, over the course of a

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jay johnson and Adam Ehsan Ali

privileging is also made clear in the SR regarding travel: “The nature of our business requires us to travel – it is unavoidable for a professional sports league” ( SR, 2014 ). These types of statements are important because they illuminate an important limitation of the ecological modernist approach, which

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Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland and Han C.G. Kemper

). Current studies use cutting-edge technologies and approaches to further our understanding of the pediatric immune response to exercise (eg, 78 , 93 , 94 ). The growing participation of children in intensive training from an early age and the (often premature) involvement of youth athletes in professional