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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

Sleep is considered the most important and accessible daily recovery strategy. However, despite its importance to psychological and physiological recovery, athletes often sleep less than recommended. 1 Although a minimum of 7 hours of sleep per night is generally recommended to promote optimal

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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

Sleep is increasingly gaining attention among sport scientists and practitioners as an important element to optimize sport performance and recovery. In fact, the critical importance of sleep’s restorative effects in daily life makes it an integral part of the recovery processes for athletes. 1 For

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Cristiano D. da Silva and Ric Lovell

(HR; 82%–86% maximum HR), 3 , 8 muscle temperature (∼39.4°C [0.4°C]), and oxygen cost (65.2% [6.7%] maximal O 2 uptake) 3 that are indicative of those documented in direct observations of soccer match play. 14 , 15 However, when observing the recovery profiles following SAFT 90 , 13 decrements in

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J.C. Siegler, J. Bell-Wilson, C. Mermier, E. Faria and R.A. Robergs

The purpose of this study was to profile the effect of active versus passive recovery on acid-base kinetics during multiple bouts of intense exercise. Ten males completed two exercise trials. The trials consisted of three exercise bouts to exhaustion with either a 12 min active (20% workload max) or passive recovery between bouts. Blood pH was lower in the passive (p) recovery compared to active (a) throughout the second and third recovery periods [second recovery: 7.18 ± 0.08 to 7.24 ± 0.09 (p), 7.23 ± 0.07 to 7.32 ± 0.07 (a), P < 0.05; third recovery: 7.17 ± 0.08 to 7.22 ± 0.09 (p), 7.23 ± 0.08 to 7.32 ± 0.08 (a), P < 0.05]. Exercise performance times did not differ between recovery conditions (P = 0.28). No difference was found between conditions for recovery kinetics (slope and half-time to recovery). Subsequent performance during multiple bouts of intense exercise to exhaustion may not be influenced by blood acidosis or mode of recovery.

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias and Chris R. Abbiss

) may impact competitive performance by impairing repeat-effort capacities, 7 combat sports–specific performance, 9 – 11 and muscular performance 8 , 12 – 13 following recovery periods of 3 to 5 hours and in some cases up to 24 hours. 7 Heat acclimation has been shown to mitigate the negative

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Aline C. Tritto, Salomão Bueno, Rosa M.P. Rodrigues, Bruno Gualano, Hamilton Roschel and Guilherme G. Artioli

and to enhance muscle recovery after intensive training ( Wilson et al., 2014 ). This may lead to improved training capacity in the subsequent sessions, thereby promoting further hypertrophy and strength gains. However, not all studies show that HMB attenuates muscle damage ( Nunan et al., 2010 ), and

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

Daily monitoring of a player’s internal and external training loads is critical in American college football since a high training load coupled with inadequate recovery can result in injury, illness, or overtraining. 1 One commonly used noninvasive method of monitoring an athlete

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

Despite the acknowledged importance of sleep for performance and recovery, 1 athletes commonly experience sleep loss following late competitions. 2 – 4 Specifically, team-sport athletes such as male footballers 4 and Australian rules footballers 5 , 6 have reported reduced sleep quantities of

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James Fell and Andrew Dafydd Williams

Recovery from exercise is integral to the physical training process. There is a perception among older athletes that aging negatively affects the recovery process. Plausible arguments for an impaired recovery with aging are a greater susceptibility of older muscle to exercise-induced skeletal-muscle damage and a slower repair and adaptation response. Differences in the physical activity level of the research participants are rarely considered, however. This makes it difficult to differentiate the respective roles of declining physical activity and aging on the recovery process. Furthermore, the type of exercise used to induce damage and monitor recovery is often not indicative of a normal training stimulus for athletes. This review discusses the effects of aging on skeletal-muscle damage and recovery processes and highlights the limitations of many of these studies with respect to older athletes. Future research should use an exercise intervention representative of a normal training stimulus and take the physical activity level of the participants into account.

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Nattai Borges, Peter Reaburn, Matthew Driller and Christos Argus

Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.