. Specifically, temperature has been found to modify human behavior, with a systematic review showing leisure-time physical activity increases in summer over winter months. 17 Although the majority of studies assessing the temperature–physical activity relationship find a positive association between
Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen and Regine Haardörfer
Margaret Delaney, Meghan Warren, Brian Kinslow, Hendrik de Heer and Kathleen Ganley
facility ( Offices of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, n.d. ). Past reviews suggested that physical activity may be the most effective intervention to prevent disability ( Tak, Kuiper, Chorus, & Hopman-Rock, 2013 ). It is believed that the relationship between physical activity and disability is
Jean M. Williams and W. Neil Widmeyer
The cohesion-performance outcome relationship was reexamined in coacting teams utilizing a recent multidimensional approach to group cohesion (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985). Contrary to the results of earlier studies, a positive rather than negative relationship was hypothesized. Teams with high cohesion were predicted to have higher intrateam communication and member motivation. The latter two variables, in turn, were hypothesized to predict performance. Subjects were 83 female golfers from 18 NCAA Division I teams who participated in a 54-hole tournament. Cohesiveness was assessed by the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985), and performance outcome was assessed by the team tournament score minus the NCAA differential (handicap) score. Cohesion significantly predicted performance outcome (r2 = 16.7), with task cohesion being the best predictor. Cohesiveness also significantly predicted communication (r2=23) and motivation as assessed by commitment to the team goal (r2=28). Communication and motivation accounted for only 5 % of the variance in performance, with motivation being the only significant predictor. The results are discussed in terms of measurement contaminants, Steiner's group productivity model, and future research needs.
Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group
determinants of mortality showed that the effects of social isolation were comparable with those of smoking and even exceed other well-known risk factors for mortality ( Holt-Lunstad, Smith, & Layton, 2010 ). Physical activity might be one factor that mediates the relationship between social isolation and
Adilson Marques, Miguel Peralta, João Martins, Élvio R. Gouveia and Miguel G. Valeiro
, Hamer, & Stamatakis, 2017 ; Wen et al., 2011 ). Older adults are less likely to engage in VPA because of their physical condition. They usually engage in less intense activities ( Jansen et al., 2015 ). Thus, it is important to better understand the relationship between LMPA and chronic diseases among
Kimberley A. Dawson, Lawrence R. Brawley and James E. Maddux
Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52–.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R 2 adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram).Adjusted The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.
Kenneth E. Mobily, Jon H. Lemke, Greg A. Drube, Robert B. Wallace, David K. Leslie and Ellen Weissinger
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between attitude toward physical activity and exercise practices among a large, well-defined population of rural mid western elderly. The frequency of participation in exercise was a composite across three questions regarding physical activity. Intensity of exercise was also considered. The data were analyzed according to a weighted least-squares approach to categorical data. The resulting chisquare goodness-of-fit model was significant and replicated the exercise behavior of the subjects. A significant main effect for gender and a significant age × attitude interaction was observed. The main effect for gender revealed that, for any age × attitude combination, males were more apt to participate at a given exercise level. However, age mediated the influence of attitude on exercise. Older age had a more detrimental effect on exercise behavior if attitude toward exercise was positive.
This paper provides an overview of the role relationship between professional athletes and sports journalists. After a brief historical review it discusses (a) the current conflicts between players and sports writers in light of changing role definitions for both athletes and journalists, (b) ethical guidelines for writers covering athletes as personalities, and (c) how the emergence of superstar athletes has intensified the potential for conflict in player-press relations. The major conclusion is that conflict in player-press relations is likely to continue. Its intensity will vary with the players’ understandings of the role of the press in professional sport, the knowledge and empathy of the sports writers themselves, and the sophistication of the consumers of sport publications.
James J. Zhang, Dale G. Pease and Dennis W. Smith
This study assessed the relationship between broadcasting and the attendance of minor league hockey games in terms of 5 media forms: cable television broadcasting, commercial television broadcasting, radio broadcasting, broadcasters, and overall broadcasting media. A random sample of spectators (N = 2,225) responded to a survey on attendance level and media use conducted in the arena during the intermissions of games from 6 second-half 1994-1995 season home games of an International Hockey League (ML) team. CM-square, f-test, and regression analyses revealed that viewing home games on cable television and away games on commercial television, listening to games on radio, and the quality of television and cable broadcasters were all positively associated with attendance, with approximately 6-11% game attendance variance explained. It is concluded that the current broadcasting arrangement is positively related to game attendance in providing information for and increasing the interests of spectators.
Diane E. Butterworth, David C. Nieman, Bruce C. Underwood and Kristian D. Lindsied
This study evaluated the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and dietary quality in a group of 20- to 40-year-old women (n = 34) who varied widely in levels of physical activity. Nutrient intakes were determined using 10 repeated 24-hr diet records, randomly assigned, over a 10-week period, Physical activity was determined on the same randomly assigned days using the Caltrac Personal Activity Computer. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by two maximal graded treadmill tests with continuous metabolic monitoring at both the beginning and end of the 10-week period. Neither physical activity nor cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly correlated with nutrient density (nutrient/1,000 kcal). Intake of energy (kcal/kg body weight) was higher for the more physically active and fit women, leading to a significant increase in most nutrients consumed per kilogram of body weight.