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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar


Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.


To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.


A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.


Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.


Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.

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Philip E. Varca, Garnett Stokes Shaffer and Vickie Saunders

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction. It involved 286 females and 262 males, categorized into three levels of sport participation (high, medium, low), who responded to two measures of life satisfaction over a 9-year period. There was no significant relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction for women. Among men, however, the high sport participation group reported the highest level of life satisfaction as freshmen in college and again 5 years after graduation. A farther path analysis, focusing on the causal nature of the sport experience/life satisfaction relationship, revealed that sport participation during adolescence significantly affected adult life satisfaction for men. These findings are discussed in terms of the psychological effects of sport.

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Angela Lumpkin and Rebecca M. Achen

Despite what many claim, just because there is teaching does not mean there is learning. Clear and convincing evidence supports changing the instructional paradigm to a learner-centered classroom. Flipping a class shifts the delivery, often through technologically presented lectures, to free class time for student participation in a plethora of learning activities, such as think-pair-share and discussions, leading to student perceptions of greater learning and more enjoyment. In an action research approach with one class, 72% of juniors and seniors in an undergraduate sport finance and economics class reported out-of-class lectures often positively impacted their learning, and the remaining 28% responded these lectures did sometimes. End-of-course evaluations and surveys were overwhelmingly positive about class engagement, interaction, and enjoyment.

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Joan L. Duda and Harry L. Hom Jr.

This study examined the interrelationships between young athletes’ and parents’ personal and perceived goal orientations in sport. Forty-three boys and 34 girls who were involved in a summer basketball camp completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) with respect to their own dispositional goal perspective in basketball and their perceptions of the goal orientation of the parent who was most involved with their basketball participation. The parents (55 mothers and 21 fathers) responded to the TEOSQ in tenns of their personal goal orientation and their perceptions of the goal orientation held by their child in basketball. Results revealed no significant correlations between children’s and parents’ self-reported task and ego orientation. Children’s goal orientation was significantly related to their views concerning the goal orientation adopted by their patents. The implications of these findings for understanding the socialization of sport goal orientations are discussed.

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David N. Ellis, Pamela J. Cress and Charles R. Spellman

This report describes an effort to train adolescents and young adults with mental retardation to modify their rates of pedaling exercycles during 10-min self-paced exercise sessions in a public school setting using commercially available heart rate (HR) monitors. A signal sounded when participants’ heart rates fell outside their predetermined cardiorespiratory conditioning ranges. During Study 1 most participants consistently avoided the alarm by pedaling at rates that maintained their HRs above their criterion levels. Study 2 included a more intensive warm-up period on the treadmill. All subjects but one consistently responded to the signal, maintaining HRs within the criterion range. Two of the participants in Study 2 were exposed to a positive reinforcement condition, with music contingent on maintaining HRs above a preset lower limit. Two subjects participated in maintenance phases and continued to exhibit relatively high HRs during exercise in the absence of signals from the HR monitor.

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Maria Kavussanu and Christopher M. Spray

This study examined the network of relationships among moral atmosphere, perceived performance motivational climate, and moral functioning of male youth football players. Participants were 325 footballers recruited from 24 teams of a youth football league. They responded to scenarios describing cheating and aggressive behaviors likely to occur during a football game by indicating their moral judgment, intention, and behavior, which represented moral functioning. The moral atmosphere of the team and participants’ perceptions of the team’s performance motivational climate were also measured. Structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of an atmosphere condoning cheating and aggressive behaviors were associated with views that a performance motivational climate is salient in the team, while both moral atmosphere and perceived performance climate corresponded to low levels of moral functioning in football. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for eliminating unsportsmanlike conduct from sport.

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Ann Sebren

The reflections and knowledge development of 7 preservice teachers during a field-based elementary methods course were analyzed and described. Data sources included audiotapes of weekly one-hour reflection sessions, nonparticipant observation of methods course meetings and field experiences, three interviews, and documents. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Changes in the preservice teachers’ knowledge were conceptualized in terms of advanced knowledge acquisition (i.e., relations within their knowledge structures). The preservice teachers (a) made managerial decisions in relation to their effect on the learning environment, (b) planned lesson content in relation to past and future lessons, (c) considered the children’s prior learning and skillfulness in relation to subject matter decisions, and (d) connected their choice of words and actions to the children’s perspectives. The preservice teachers did not, however, develop the ability to respond pedagogically to students during an actual lesson. Linkages between the reflection process and the preservice teachers’ development are drawn.

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Lew Hardy and Gaynor Parfitt

The aim of this paper is to describe and appraise two different models used for providing sport psychology support services to the British Amateur Gymnastics Association over the last 6 years. In the first phase, the sport psychologists assumed the traditional role of experts who evaluated performers’ needs and then prescribed educational psychological skills training programs according to the sport psychologists’ perceptions of individual needs. This approach contained both educational and monitoring elements. The second phase adopted a consultancy approach in which the coach, performer, and sport psychologist were all assumed to bring expert knowledge to bear on any problem. In this approach, the sport psychologists responded to the expressed needs of performers and coaches, assuming diverse roles. According to the sport psychologists, this second model was more difficult to operate than the first model. However, consultant evaluation data and consultant opinion suggested the second model operated more successfully than the first.

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Galen Trail and Packianathan Chelladurai

This research assessed the direct and indirect influences of personal values on the importance attached to intercollegiate athletic goals, and approval of various processes in intercollegiate athletics. Students and faculty of a large Midwestern university responded to a questionnaire consisting of Schwartz's Value Scale (SVS), and Trail and Chelladurai's Scale of Athletic Department Goals (SADG) and Scale of Athletic Department Processes (SADP). Structural Equation Modeling procedures showed that the model of goals fully mediating the relationship between personal values and processes was more tenable than alternate models. Further, the Power values were positively associated with importance ratings of athletic performance goals such as Winning, Financial Security, Visibility/Prestige, and Entertainment. Universalism values were positively associated with student developmental goals such as Health/Fitness, Academic Achievement and Careers. Managers of intercollegiate athletics would do well to link their emphases on specific processes and decisions to the relevant values held by critical stakeholders to engender support of the program.

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Josh Compton and Jordan Compton

Open letters offer a unique focus for rhetorical analysis in sport communication, forming a message that is both interpersonal (the attempt to reflect dialogue through a letter writer and its recipients) and public (the “open” part of the open letter). The National Football League (NFL) attempted image repair when it used open letters to respond to accusations that it was not doing enough to protect athletes against devastating effects of concussions. Through the use of Benoit’s theory of image repair, the authors found that Commissioner Goodell’s open letters relied on 2 main image-repair strategies: reducing offensiveness and corrective action. They consider the implications of these rhetorical choices for the complicated merging areas of sport, communication, and health in the NFL’s open letters.