A collaborative framework that influences the promotion of policy related to physical activity should include parks and recreation as well as public health practitioners and researchers. As governments at all levels become increasingly focused on the impact of public resources, park and recreation agencies are challenged to document and demonstrate the impact of leisure services. Public policy associated with parks and recreation is driven by public interest and is often debated in the absence of relevant research to demonstrate the determinants and correlates of parks and recreation to address prevailing social conditions. This paper describes current policy and funding issues faced by public parks and recreation professionals responding to increasing physically active leisure across the lifespan of Americans. We also discuss how a collaborative framework approach can be used to inform public policy designed to increase the physical activity of the American public.
Kathy J. Spangler and Linda L. Caldwell
Coyte G. Cooper and Richard M. Southall
Over the past few decades, college sport in the United States has increasingly adopted a commercial institutional logic when engaging in an athletics “arms race.” With decisions by some athletic directors to eliminate certain nonrevenue Olympic sport programs for spending reallocation, it stands to reason that programs such as men’s wrestling will need to enhance their revenue streams to remain viable in future years. The purpose of the study was to investigate the motivational preferences of online wrestling consumers (N = 451) to provide a core foundation for the development of strategies to enhance interest in the college-wrestling product. In addition to illustrating that online consumers responded most favorably to the sport-related wrestling motives, the data also supported the notion that the motivational preferences of consumers varied when focusing on the demographic information of participants.
Bonnie L. Parkhouse
The current status of undergraduate and graduate curricula in sport management was examined in 83 institutions identified as offering sport management programs in the United States (40 undergraduate, 32 graduate, and 11 programs at both levels). Since only two Canadian institutions responded to this inquiry, definitive conclusions could not be drawn about the current status of sport management in Canada. However, several observations about them are made on the basis of external data. The findings of this study clearly indicate that sport management curricula varies markedly from one institution to another. In most cases the institution claims to have a program in sport management per se, but in reality course offerings are not sufficient to warrant even a minor or concentration in this area. Implications of current practices in sport management are discussed, and recommendations for future development are presented.
Deborah Rohm Young, Abby C. King and Roberta K. Oka
This investigation identified demographic and health-related characteristics of 1,877 sedentary, underactive, and regularly active individuals aged 50 to 65 randomly sampled from a northern California city. Physiological and psychosocial information was available in greater detail for a subsample (n = 327) of sedentary and underactive persons who were subsequently enrolled in a randomized, controlled, clinical trial (SSHIP). Results suggested that unmarried men, women reporting poor health, and smokers were most likely to be completely sedentary. Sedentary and underactive individuals responded differently to two recruitment strategies designed to attract participants into SSHIP. In addition, the initially sedentary participants had significantly lower adherence rates across the 1-year exercise trial compared to the initially underactive regardless of either the format or intensity of the program. These data underscore the utility of differentiating between levels of less-than-optimal physical activity in formulating campaigns promoting physical activity as well as designing exercise interventions.
Gina Daddario and Brian J. Wigley
This study examines the discourse associated with the membership policies at Shoal Creek and Augusta National Golf Clubs. Get-away havens for wealthy White males, these clubs became contested terrains when each was scheduled to host a major golf event: the 1990 PGA Championship at Shoal Creek and the 2003 Masters Tournament at Augusta National. At the time of the events in this study, Shoal Creek had a Whites-only membership policy and Augusta National a male-only policy, which it maintains today. Controversy ensued when the chairs of each club made disparaging comments to the press about these excluded groups. Two parallel areas were considered in our comparative analysis: how the commercial sponsors responded to the controversies, and how the club chairs and their supporters used the rhetorical strategy of apologia to defend themselves and restore the public image of golf. Our analysis reveals the differences in how the cultural constructs of race and gender were negotiated in each case.
Nicola J. Hodges
When we watch other people perform actions, this involves many interacting processes comprising cognitive, motor, and visual system interactions. These processes change based on the context of our observations, particularly if the actions are novel and our intention is to learn those actions so we can later reproduce them, or respond to them in an effective way. Over the past 20 years or so I have been involved in research directed at understanding how we learn from watching others, what information guides this learning, and how our learning experiences, whether observational or physical, impact our subsequent observations of others, particularly when we are engaged in action prediction. In this review I take a historical look at action observation research, particularly in reference to motor skill learning, and situate my research, and those of collaborators and students, among the common theoretical and methodological frameworks of the time.
Courtney Hodge, Joseph A. Pederson and Matthew Walker
Given the increasing popularity of social-networking sites, it is extremely important for brand managers involved with Internet-based communication platforms to evaluate whether their communication strategies are positively influencing user attitudes and behaviors toward their brands. This article aims to address this need by investigating how sports fans respond to various marketing communication styles via Facebook posts. Using a case-manipulation design, this study empirically examines the relation among communication styles and individual willingness to engage in 4 common Facebook behaviors (i.e., “comment,” “like,” “share,” and “RSVP”). The results indicate that a personal communication style enhanced individual willingness to “comment” on Facebook posts, while the colorful style enhanced individual willingness to “like” and “RSVP” to Facebook events.
Stephen K. Ford and Jeffery J. Summers
The factorial validity of the attentional-style subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) have recently been questioned, although the evidence is only indirect. This study aimed to examine, directly, the factorial validity of these scales and to cross-validate the results. Two samples of 210 first-year psychology students responded to the 52 items comprising the attention-related subscales of the TAIS. A multidimensional confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) was conducted on the interitem covariance matrix to test the measurement model underlying the six subscales. The MCFA results failed to support the model. Furthermore, internal consistency coefficients and item-total coefficients also supported the view that many of the subscales have insufficient factorial validity. Of the 52 items, 44% correlated better with at least one subscale other than their own, which indicates poor discriminant validity. Analysis of item content reveals some explanation for the poor discriminant validity. All results were cross-validated with the second sample.
Andy Gillham, Keith Hansen and Connor Brady
Coaches are evaluated and judged on a large number of factors (Gillham, Burton, & Gillham, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to describe the views of three different professionals on coach evaluation. An athletic director and a coach from different Canadian colleges and a coaching consultant responded to the same series of questions regarding coach evaluation at the college level. Across the three professionals, the views expressed are more similar than dissimilar, with each professional emphasizing a different piece of the coach evaluation process. The information presented aligns both with coaching standards in the United States and at the International level. Stakeholder views are compared with the coaching science literature and recommendations for athletic directors and coaching scientists are provided.
Martyn Standage, Joan L. Duda, Darren C. Treasure and Keven A. Prusak
This research assessed the reliability, presence of a proposed simplex pattern (construct validity), factorial validity, and multisample invariance of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000). In Study 1, data were collected from three physical activity samples. After establishing internal consistencies for all scales, bivariate and interfactor correlations were calculated and the results supported a simplex pattern across samples. The SIMS factorial validity across the three samples was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification, the SIMS was reduced to a 14-item model and the multisample invariance of this solution was examined. Results supported partial invariance. In Study 2, a total of 1,008 female PE students responded to the SIMS under two experimental conditions. Internal consistency and the assumed simplex pattern was again supported. Finally, the results of multisample CFA were consistent with the proposed post hoc model respecifications suggested in Study 1, supporting partial invariance.