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John Hargreaves

This paper attempts to explain the relationship between socialism and sport in Britain using a historical and comparative analysis of developments in Europe to identify the particular sociopolitical conditions and processes pertaining in the British case. It argues that a distinctively socialist sports culture failed to develop in Britain due to the interaction between two sets of forces: the powerful economic, political, and cultural constraints that are characteristic of Britain’s development, and the character of British socialism’s response to those constraints. It pinpoints the ways in which features specific to British socialism disabled socialists from adequately grasping the significance of sport in popular culture, from responding effectively to the way class, sex and gender, and national identities are formed in sporting activity, and from influencing processes of conflict and accommodation taking place around sport between dominant and subordinate groups.

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Josh Compton and Jordan Compton

Open letters offer a unique focus for rhetorical analysis in sport communication, forming a message that is both interpersonal (the attempt to reflect dialogue through a letter writer and its recipients) and public (the “open” part of the open letter). The National Football League (NFL) attempted image repair when it used open letters to respond to accusations that it was not doing enough to protect athletes against devastating effects of concussions. Through the use of Benoit’s theory of image repair, the authors found that Commissioner Goodell’s open letters relied on 2 main image-repair strategies: reducing offensiveness and corrective action. They consider the implications of these rhetorical choices for the complicated merging areas of sport, communication, and health in the NFL’s open letters.

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Amir A. Mohagheghi, J. Greg Anson, Brian I. Hyland, Louise Parr-Brownlie and Jeffrey R. Wickens

The effect of foreperiod length on reaction time in memorized (MM) and nonmemorized (NM), precued, delayed responses was investigated. Six subjects participated in one long and one short foreperiod schedule testing session. An aiming task, using elbow supination/pronation, in response to a visual stimulus was employed. In the MM condition, target spatial information was available for a fraction of the foreperiod duration. In the NM condition, target information was available continuously until the subject attained the target position. Subjects responded with a significantly longer latency in the long foreperiod schedule. Within each foreperiod schedule, the shortest foreperiod resulted in significantly longer reaction time. However, the absolute value of foreperiod did not have a major effect on reaction time latency. Memorization and nonmemorization conditions did not affect reaction time.

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Kimberly L. Oliver and Rosary Lalik

Drawing on poststructuralism and related theoretical perspectives, we worked in girls’ physical education classes to examine the development and implementation of a curriculum strand focusing on girls’ bodies. The purpose was to help adolescent girls name the discourses that shape their lives and regulate their bodies. We asked two major questions: What were the major tasks actually used during the enactment of the curriculum strand? and: What issues and concerns emerged for us as we enacted the strand and how did we respond? This study took place in a 7th–12th grade rural high school in the southern United States. We collected data during the 2000–2001 school year in three girls’ physical education classes. We conducted 14 sessions for each class and analyzed our data using the constant comparison method. Several issues emerged including: making the curriculum meaningful, offsetting task difficulties, sustaining ethical relationships, and lessening interference of research culture.

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Andrew Rudd, Susan Mullane and Sharon Stoll

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the moral judgments of sport managers called the Moral Judgments of Sport Managers Instrument (MJSMI). More specifically, our intention was to measure moral judgment on a unidimensional level given past research suggesting moral judgment is a unidimensional construct (Hahm, Beller, & Stoll, 1989; Kohlberg, 1984; Piaget, 1932; Rest, 1979, 1986). The MJSMI contains 8 moral dilemmas/stories in the context of sport management. Sport managers respond to the dilemmas on a four-point Likert scale. Three pilot studies were undertaken to develop the MJSMI. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were the primary methods for assaying reliability and validity. Results consistently showed that sport managers’ responses vary depending on the nature of the moral scenario and thus do not indicate a unidimensional construct. The reasons for inconsistent responses are thoroughly discussed.

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Stephen Dittmore, Daniel Mahony, Damon P.S. Andrew and Mary A. Hums

The purpose of this study was to measure U.S. National Governing Body (NGB) administrators’ perceptions of fairness of financial resource allocation within the U.S. Olympic Movement. This study extends previous research on distributive justice in the sport industry by examining a new setting and controlling for the potential moderating effect of procedural justice. Presidents and executive directors responded to a survey containing three resource allocation scenarios. Study participants most often identified need to be competitively successful as the most fair distribution principle, but believed equity based on medals won was the most likely to be used. Results also indicated significant differences in the perceived fairness of distribution principles based on the budget size of the NGB, the membership size of the NGB, and the NGB’s success in the Olympic Games. These results have implications for the evolving priorities of NGBs, how these priorities are being addressed, and possible reactions to resource distribution decisions.

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Stephen K. Ford and Jeffery J. Summers

The factorial validity of the attentional-style subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) have recently been questioned, although the evidence is only indirect. This study aimed to examine, directly, the factorial validity of these scales and to cross-validate the results. Two samples of 210 first-year psychology students responded to the 52 items comprising the attention-related subscales of the TAIS. A multidimensional confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) was conducted on the interitem covariance matrix to test the measurement model underlying the six subscales. The MCFA results failed to support the model. Furthermore, internal consistency coefficients and item-total coefficients also supported the view that many of the subscales have insufficient factorial validity. Of the 52 items, 44% correlated better with at least one subscale other than their own, which indicates poor discriminant validity. Analysis of item content reveals some explanation for the poor discriminant validity. All results were cross-validated with the second sample.

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Linda M. Petlichkoff

The purpose of this investigation was to replicate and extend previous research (16) that examined group differences (starters, primary and secondary substitutes) on achievement goal orientations, perceived ability, and level of satisfaction. Athletes (N=417), ranging in age from 14 to 18 years, responded to an interscholastic sport questionnaire at preseason and postseason. Multivariate analyses revealed significant player status and time-of-season main effects for males, females, and age groups 14–15 years, 16 years, and 17–18 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that starters were significantly higher on their perceived ability rating than primary and secondary substitutes. Group differences also revealed there were player status differences on the ability and mastery goal orientations for males and females, and for 17- to 18-year-olds. The time main effect revealed that the mastery orientation decreased from the preseason to postseason assessment.

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Arnold LeUnes and Sue Ann Hayward

Departmental chairpersons of American Psychological Association-approved clinical psychology programs responded to a questionnaire concerned with selected aspects of sport psychology. Of 147 chairs, 102 (69.4%) returned the instrument. The nine questions comprising the instrument were aimed at assessing the current perception of and future predictions for sport psychology. Data analysis is supportive of the viability of sport psychology but also indicates that it is not a major curricular component in selected psychology departments at the present time. Sport psychology appears to be positively perceived by the current respondents, and there is little evidence of an impending turf war between psychology and physical education over who will control the field. However, the use of the term sport psychologist is seen as contentious in view of state/provincial licensing laws, but no clear-cut answer to credentialing is foreseen.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar

Context:

Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.

Objective:

To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.

Design:

A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.

Results:

Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.

Conclusions:

Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.