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Charles Macaulay, Joseph Cooper and Shaun Dougherty

location. This means it could be defined by city blocks if it is in a high-density area or by natural land formations in rural areas. Within this area, the most common zip code is determined and assigned to as the census block number. According to the U.S. census bureau the average census block has 39

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Wei Gao and Keqiang Cao

Chinese adults living in urban and rural areas: a review . Journal of Sport and Health Science , 5 ( 3 ), 281 – 286 . doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.004 10.1016/j.jshs.2016.07.004

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Vida K. Nyawornota, Austin Luguterah, Seidu Sofo, Richmond Aryeetey, Margaret Badasu, John Nartey, Emmanuel Assasie, Samuel K. Donkor, Vivian Dougblor, Helena Williams and Reginald Ocansey

-based activities at school, home and in open spaces around the 216 districts in the country. Active Transportation C+ About 54% of children and youth, especially those in the rural areas, walk to school and back home covering about 2km. Sedentary Behaviours INC There was no data to describe children and youth

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Kingsley K. Akinroye and Ade F. Adeniyi

children and youth in urban population and 43.7% in rural areas participate in organized sports. It was also found that 40% of children in public schools and 80% in private schools engage in organized sports that involved football, table tennis and athletics. The gradual incursion of Sport Academies has

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Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida Silva and Aldemir Smith Menezes

of data of an epidemiological cross-sectional survey entitled “Living and Health Conducts of Adolescents Residents in Rural and Urban Areas in the State of Sergipe, Brazil,” developed in 2011 by the Research Group in Physical Education and Health of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and

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Hannah G. Calvert, Lindsey Turner, Julien Leider, Elizabeth Piekarz-Porter and Jamie F. Chriqui

Education Statistics. 42 Region was coded based on the U.S. census region 43 of the state where each school was located. Urbanicity included 3 categories (urban, suburban, and rural). Total student enrollment was categorized in 3 levels to indicate school size (<500, 500–999, and ≥1000). Race/ethnicity of

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Laura Prior and Matthew Curtner-Smith

Setting A total of 10 elementary physical education teachers working in public schools within one southeastern American state participated in this study. They were purposefully selected so that our sample included teachers of both genders and different races who were employed in rural and suburban schools

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Mats Hallgren, Andreas Lundin, James Mugisha and Ai Koyanagi

factors (e.g., somatic health, psychological wellbeing), social context (e.g., wealth and living arrangements), and environmental factors (e.g., urban or rural setting) interact to affect the opportunities for physically active lifestyles. In addition to these variables, we were also interested to measure

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Tyler Prochnow, Haley Delgado, Megan S. Patterson and M. Renée Umstattd Meyer

“underserved.” Children living in rural, low socioeconomic status, and/or communities of color are at greater risk of not meeting PA guidelines, 70 , 71 – 74 and therefore would benefit greatly from interventions and strategies to improve PA. Taylor et al 75 found many significant differences in how various

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Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen and Erja Portegijs

evidence either inconclusive or inconsistent ( Barnett et al., 2017 ; Cerin et al., 2017 ; Van Cauwenberg et al., 2018 ). In previous studies, neighborhoods have been characterized as urban/rural ( Lee & Park, 2015 ), urban/suburban/rural ( Hanibuchi, Kawachi, Nakaya, Hirai, & Kondo, 2011 ; Maisel, 2016