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Nicholas J. Hanson, Sarah C. Martinez, Erik N. Byl, Rachel M. Maceri and Michael G. Miller

be that a low dosage of caffeine helps to sustain a safe core temperature, thereby improving performance. Additionally, studies have shown that low to moderate dosages of caffeine can positively affect psychological variables such as effort perception and increase motivation during exercise. In a

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

outcomes given that glycogen concentrations did not affect myofibrillar protein synthesis. In relation to the reactivation of p70S6K activity in the recovery period from exercise, it is noteworthy that we previously observed that the sustained presence of reduced CHO (and energy availability) and/or high

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

-intensity warm-up (55–70% maximum HR [HR max ]) interspersed by self-paced progressive sprints and ended with 15- to 20-minute cooldown (55–70% HR max ). Participants were instructed to perform each HIT session at their maximal sustainable intensity (isoeffort). 15 RPE for the previous series (Borg 6–20 scale

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Michele Lastella, Gregory D. Roach, Grace E. Vincent, Aaron T. Scanlan, Shona L. Halson and Charli Sargent

adolescent athletes. 13 There are limited data exploring the consequences of inadequate sleep (<8 h per night) on the health and well-being of adolescent athletes. Milewski et al 26 demonstrated that adolescent athletes who obtain <8 hours of sleep per night were 1.7 times more likely to sustain an injury

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Robert Ahmun, Steve McCaig, Jamie Tallent, Sean Williams and Tim Gabbett

, while being treated for a musculoskeletal condition, or they may have 2 or more musculoskeletal conditions requiring management at the same time. A change in injury status occurred when a player’s injury status changed from one to another, for example, a player sustained a hamstring strain and was

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Raúl Pernía, José G. Villa and Carl Foster

riders (70–85 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ). 2 – 5 Therefore, the assessment of efficiency/economy and the capacity to sustain high intensities during prolonged submaximal work may have greater relevance for longitudinal evaluation of well-trained cyclists. 2 , 4 , 6 These variables may discriminate cyclists

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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester and Jonathan P. Folland

Distance-running performance is dependent on the speed that can be sustained for the duration of an event. This speed is determined by the interaction of several physiological factors 1 that include maximal rate of oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), anaerobic capacity, fractional utilization of V ˙ O

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

·mL −1 dry and humid, respectively) despite large mean losses in body mass (%) following each exposure (−4.0% [0.8%] and −3.9% [1.0%] dry and humid, respectively). Water consumption was less during dry (1.2 [0.2] L) compared with humid (1.5 [0.1] L) STHA (dry vs humid 93%/5%/2%). Mean T core sustained

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Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan

likely to be encountered, which appears to be associated with negative consequences such as fatigue and circadian disruption, 29 subsequently impeding the ability to sustain high external and internal workload intensities during game-play. Therefore, the travel demands concomitant with an Australian

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Nicki Winfield Almquist, Gertjan Ettema, James Hopker, Øyvind Sandbakk and Bent R. Rønnestad

encouragement throughout. Peak power output was defined as the highest PO achieved during the Wingate test, and mean power output (PO mean ) was presented as the 30-second average PO sustained throughout the Wingate test. Participants recovered (∼30 min) until the blood lactate concentration [BLa − ] had