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Kelly R. Rice, Catherine Gammon, Karin Pfieffer and Stewart Trost

Purpose:

The OMNI perceived exertion scale was developed for children to report perceived effort while performing physical activity; however no studies have formally examined age-related differences in validity. This study evaluated the validity of the OMNI-RPE in 4 age groups performing a range of lifestyle activities.

Methods:

206 participants were stratified into four age groups: 6-8 years (n = 42), 9-10 years (n = 46), 11-12 years (n = 47), and 13-15 years (n = 71). Heart rate and VO2 were measured during 11 activity trials ranging in intensity from sedentary to vigorous. After each trial, participants reported effort from the OMNI walk/run scale. Concurrent validity was assessed by calculating within-subject correlations between OMNI ratings and the two physiological indices.

Results:

The average correlation between OMNI ratings and VO2 was 0.67, 0.77, 0.85, and 0.87 for the 6-8, 9-10, 11-12 and 13-15 y age groups, respectively.

Conclusion:

The OMNI RPE scale demonstrated fair to good evidence of validity across a range of lifestyle activities among 6- to 15-year-old children. The validity of the scale appears to be developmentally related with RPE reports closely reflecting physiological responses among children older than 8 years.

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Marissa E. Mendelsohn, Denise M. Connelly, Tom J. Overend and Robert J. Petrella

Although popular in clinical settings, little is known about the utility of all-extremity semirecumbent exercise machines for research. Twenty-one community-dwelling older adults performed two exercise trials (three 4-min stages at increasing workloads) to evaluate the reliability and validity of exercise responses to submaximal all-extremity semirecumbent exercise (BioStep). Exercise responses were measured directly (Cosmed K4b2) and indirectly through software on the BioStep. Test–retest reliability (ICC2,1) was moderate to high across all three stages for directly measured METs (.92, .87, and .88) and HR (.91, .83, and .86). Concurrent criterion validity between the K4b2 and BioStep MET values was moderate to very good across the three stages on both Day 1 (r = .86, .71, and .83) and Day 2 (r = .73, .87, and .72). All-extremity semirecumbent submaximal exercise elicited reliable and valid responses in our sample of older adults and thus can be considered a viable exercise mode.

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Martyn Standage, Joan L. Duda, Darren C. Treasure and Keven A. Prusak

This research assessed the reliability, presence of a proposed simplex pattern (construct validity), factorial validity, and multisample invariance of the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000). In Study 1, data were collected from three physical activity samples. After establishing internal consistencies for all scales, bivariate and interfactor correlations were calculated and the results supported a simplex pattern across samples. The SIMS factorial validity across the three samples was tested via confirmatory factor analysis. Based on modification indices and theoretical justification, the SIMS was reduced to a 14-item model and the multisample invariance of this solution was examined. Results supported partial invariance. In Study 2, a total of 1,008 female PE students responded to the SIMS under two experimental conditions. Internal consistency and the assumed simplex pattern was again supported. Finally, the results of multisample CFA were consistent with the proposed post hoc model respecifications suggested in Study 1, supporting partial invariance.

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Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones

The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.

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Harry G. Banyard, Ken Nosaka, Kimitake Sato and G. Gregory Haff

Purpose:

To examine the validity of 2 kinematic systems for assessing mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV), mean force (MF), peak force (PF), mean power (MP), and peak power (PP) during the full-depth free-weight back squat performed with maximal concentric effort.

Methods:

Ten strength-trained men (26.1 ± 3.0 y, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, 82.0 ± 10.6 kg) performed three 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) trials on 3 separate days, encompassing lifts performed at 6 relative intensities including 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of 1RM. Each repetition was simultaneously recorded by a PUSH band and commercial linear position transducer (LPT) (GymAware [GYM]) and compared with measurements collected by a laboratory-based testing device consisting of 4 LPTs and a force plate.

Results:

Trials 2 and 3 were used for validity analyses. Combining all 120 repetitions indicated that the GYM was highly valid for assessing all criterion variables while the PUSH was only highly valid for estimations of PF (r = .94, CV = 5.4%, ES = 0.28, SEE = 135.5 N). At each relative intensity, the GYM was highly valid for assessing all criterion variables except for PP at 20% (ES = 0.81) and 40% (ES = 0.67) of 1RM. Moreover, the PUSH was only able to accurately estimate PF across all relative intensities (r = .92–.98, CV = 4.0–8.3%, ES = 0.04–0.26, SEE = 79.8–213.1 N).

Conclusions:

PUSH accuracy for determining MV, PV, MF, MP, and PP across all 6 relative intensities was questionable for the back squat, yet the GYM was highly valid at assessing all criterion variables, with some caution given to estimations of MP and PP performed at lighter loads.

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Derek N. Pamukoff, Sarah E. Bell, Eric D. Ryan and J. Troy Blackburn

Context:

Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress.

Objective:

To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS.

Design:

Descriptive laboratory study.

Setting:

Laboratory

Participants:

33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg).

Main Outcome Measures:

Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product–moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique.

Results:

The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061).

Conclusions:

The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.

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Kenny Guex, Chantal Daucourt and Stéphane Borloz

Context:

In the field of sport rehabilitation, an easy, valid, and reliable assessment of maximal strength is crucial for efficient muscle rehabilitation. Classically, it is performed on fitness equipment that is not necessary available in the field. Thera-Band has developed elastic bands with different resistances depending on the color of the band and on the percentage of its stretch. This may allow testing maximal strength.

Objective:

To determine validity and reliability of maximal-strength assessment of knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands.

Design:

Reliability and validity study.

Participants:

22 healthy participants (31.3 ± 7.0 y, 175.5 ± 8.5 cm, 70.7 ± 12.9 kg).

Intervention:

Participants performed 2 maximal-strength assessments, separated by 7 d, of the knee flexors and extensors using elastic bands. After the 2nd trial, a maximal concentric isokinetic test at 60°/s was performed.

Main Outcome Measures:

Correlations between 1-repetition maximum using elastic bands and peak torque on an isokinetic dynamometer were used to determine the validity of the proposed method, while ICC, CV, and SEM were used to determine reliability between the 1st and 2nd trials.

Results:

The validity of the proposed method was found to be very high (r = .93 for both knee flexors and extensors). The relative reliability was found to be very high (ICC = .98 and .99 for knee flexors and extensors, respectively), while absolute reliability was also very satisfying (CV = 3.44% and 2.33%; SEM = 1.70 and 2.16 kg for knee flexors and extensors, respectively).

Conclusions:

Thera-Band is a valid and reliable alternative to the use of fitness equipment to test maximal strength of the knee flexors and extensors in healthy subjects. The ease of use, accessibility, and low cost of elastic bands should allow regular assessment during the rehabilitation process.

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Katherine J. Riggen, Dale A. Ulrich and John C. Ozmun

The reliability and concurrent validity of the Test of Motor Impairment-Henderson Revision was evaluated employing a sample of preschoolers. Absolute reliability of the final test score was established by calculating the standard error of measurement (SEM). An SEM of .86 was obtained. The consistency of decisions related to motor impairment or nonimpairment was estimated by calculating the proportion of agreement index across two testing occasions and Kappa. A 90% agreement was obtained with Kappa equal to .71. Concurrent validity using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form as the criterion resulted in an 88% agreement between the two tests.

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NiCole R. Keith, Daniel O. Clark, Timothy E. Stump, Douglas K. Miller and Christopher M. Callahan

Background:

An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care.

Purpose:

To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ≥ 40 years of age.

Methods:

201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults’ Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach’s Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability.

Results:

Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach’s Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were –0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001.

Conclusion:

Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey’s validity and reliability.

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Peter Düking, Dennis-Peter Born and Billy Sperlich

Purpose:

To determine the reliability, usefulness, and validity of 3 different change-of-direction tests on a SpeedCourt (SCCODT) in team-sport players.

Methods:

For reliability and usefulness, 30 players (16 female and 14 male; age 19 ± 3 y, height 169 ± 30 cm, body mass 70 ± 11 kg) performed 3 SCCODTs differing in duration (7–45 s) on 3 occasions 1 wk apart. The total sprint times (TT) and time to change direction (TCD) were analyzed for each SCCODT. For validity, 14 players performed the Illinois Agility Test (IAT) and 505 test on a separate occasion.

Results:

TT for all SCCODTs is reliable (ICC > .79, CV < 5%), useful (TE < SWC0.5), and valid (IAT r > .71, P < .05; 505 test r > .54, P < .05). SCCODT variable TCD may be useful (TE = SWC0.5) but shows limited reliability with ICC >.65 and a CV >5%.

Conclusions:

All SCCODTs are reliable, useful, and valid to detect moderate performance changes regarding TT, with limited reliability for TCD. The quality of assessment improves when players are well familiarized with the SCCODT.