The purpose of this investigation was to determine the changes in body composition, isokinetic strength, and muscular power in high school wrestlers across a season of competition. Wrestlers were measured (preseason and postseason) for body composition and isokinetic peak torque for flexion and extension of the dominant forearm and leg. Each subject also completed Wingate anaerobic tests to determine changes in mean power and peak power (PP) of the legs. The results indicated that body weight (BW), fat weight, and percent fat decreased (p < .002) across the wrestling season. PP and absolute peak torque for forearm and leg extension (LE) at 30°·s−1; forearm flexion (FF) at 30, 180, and 300°·s−1; and leg flexion (LF) at 180 and 300°·s−1 were significantly (p < .05) lower postseason. Relative peak torque (adjusted for BW) decreased (p < .05) across the season for LE at 30°·s−1 as well as FF and LF at 180°·s−1. Therefore, changes in BW were not associated with functional advantages in terms of strength or muscular power.
Joan M. Eckerson, Dona J. Housh, Terry J. Housh and Glen O. Johnson
Geraldine Naughton and John Carlson
This study examined the changes in the physiological profile of children engaged in organized sporting activity compared to a group of normally active children. Eight children (mean age 11.4 yrs) from each of four popular sports in Australia (badminton, basketball, netball, and tennis) and an equal number of nontraining children were monitored over a 12-week season. Very few differences occurred between the sporting groups and the control group. No change was reported between groups in peak oxygen uptake at the start and completion of the season. Changes occurring within each group did not consistently reflect any sport-specific characteristics over the season. Flexibility improved significantly, with an average gain of 3.76 cm in all groups except basketball players, who gained only 0.69 cm for the 12 weeks. Anaerobic power demonstrated significant improvement only within those sporting groups whose training specifically included explosive based activity. It is suggested that the active nature of the control children and use of only 12 weeks of data collection could have contributed to the limited physiological differences observed between active sporting and nonsporting children.
Nathan G. Lawler, Chris R. Abbiss, Aaron Raman, Timothy J. Fairchild, Garth L. Maker, Robert D. Trengove and Jeremiah J. Peiffer
To examine the influence of manipulating aerobic contribution after whole-blood removal on pacing patterns, performance, and energy contribution during self-paced middle-distance cycling.
Seven male cyclists (33 ± 8 y) completed an incremental cycling test followed 20 min later by a 4-min self-paced cycling time trial (4MMP) on 6 separate occasions over 42 d. The initial 2 sessions acted as familiarization and baseline testing, after which 470 mL of blood was removed, with the remaining sessions performed 24 h, 7 d, 21 d, and 42 d after blood removal. During all 4MMP trials, power output, oxygen uptake, and aerobic and anaerobic contribution to power were determined.
4MMP average power output significantly decreased by 7% ± 6%, 6% ± 8%, and 4% ± 6% at 24 h, 7 d, and 21 d after blood removal, respectively. Compared with baseline, aerobic contribution during the 4MMP was significantly reduced by 5% ± 4%, 4% ± 5%, and 4% ± 10% at 24 h, 7 d, and 21 d, respectively. The rate of decline in power output on commencement of the 4MMP was significantly attenuated and was 76% ± 20%, 72% ± 24%, and 75% ± 35% lower than baseline at 24 h, 21 d, and 42 d, respectively.
Removal of 470 mL of blood reduces aerobic energy contribution, alters pacing patterns, and decreases performance during self-paced cycling. These findings indicate the importance of aerobic energy distribution during self-paced middle-distance events.
Richard D. Telford, Christopher J. Bunney, Edward A. Catchpole, Wendy R. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Bon Gray, Allan G. Hahn and Deborah A. Kerr
This investigation aimed to determine whether the physical work capacity of nonanemic athletes could be improved when plasma ferritin concentrations of below 30 nglml were raised at least 15 ng/ml. The experimental group consisted of 15 training athletes, each of whose plasma ferritin concentration was less than 30 ng/ml (mean and SD of 19.8 ±8.4 nglml). In a control group of 16, each was measured with a plasma ferritin concentration of more than 40 ng/ml (mean and SD of 83.3 ±37.6 ngfml). All participated in submaximal and maximal tests for aerobic and anaerobic power. Following iron supplementation, plasma fenitin concentration in each experimental subject increased by at least 15 nglml to more than 30 ng/ml, to a new mean of 46.3 ±15.5 ng/ml. The performance measures were also repeated, but no significant overall effects were associated with the increased plasma ferritin concentrations. These data provide no sound evidence that physical work capacity of athletes is enhanced when plasma ferritin concentrations of around 20 ng/ml are increased by at least 15 ng/ml.
Aleksandar Sovtic, Predrag Minic, Jovan Kosutic, Gordana Markovic-Sovtic and Milan Gajic
The modified Chrispin-Norman radiography score (CNS) is used in evaluation of radiographic changes in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). We evaluated the correlation of modified CNS with peak exercise capacity (Wpeak) and ventilatory efficiency (reflected by breathing reserve index—BRI) during progressive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Thirty-six children aged 8–17 years were stratified according to their CNS into 3 groups: mild (<10), moderate (10–15), and severe (>15). CPET was performed on a cycle ergometer. Lung function tests included spirometry and whole-body plethysmography. Patients with higher CNS had lower FEV1 (p < .001), Wpeak predicted (%; p = .01) and lower mean peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak/kg; p = .014). The BRI at the anaerobic threshold and at Wpeak was elevated in patients with the highest CNS values (p < .001). The modified CNS correlates moderately with Wpeak (R = −0.443; p = .007) and BRI (R = −0.419; p = .011). Stepwise multiple linear regression showed that RV/TLC was the best predictor of Wpeak/pred (%; B = −0.165; b = −0.494; R2 = .244; p = .002). Children with CF who have high modified CNS exhibit decreased exercise tolerance and ventilatory inefficacy during progressive effort.
Hans Luttikholt, Lars R. McNaughton, Adrian W. Midgley and David J. Bentley
There is currently no model that predicts peak power output (PPO) thereby allowing comparison between different incremental exercise test (EXT) protocols. In this study we have used the critical power profile to develop a mathematical model for predicting PPO from the results of different EXTs.
The purpose of this study was to examine the level of agreement between actual PPO values and those predicted from the new model.
Eleven male athletes (age 25 ± 5 years, VO2max 62 ± 8 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed 3 laboratory tests on a cycle ergometer. Each test comprised an EXT consisting of 1-minute workload increments of 30 W (EXT30/1) and 3-minute (EXT25/3) and 5-minute workload increments (EXT25/5) of 25 W. The PPO determined from each test was used to predict the PPO from the remaining 2 EXTs.
The differences between actual and predicted PPO values were statistically insignificant (P > .05). The random error components of the limits of agreement of ≤30 W also indicated acceptable levels of agreement between actual and predicted PPO values.
Further data collection is necessary to confirm whether the model is able to predict PPO over a wide range of EXT protocols in athletes of different aerobic and anaerobic capacities.
Gregory S. Anderson
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of using the 1600-m distance run (DR) and the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run (SR) as predictors of aerobic capacity in active boys 10 to 12 years of age. The influence of weight and maximal sprint running speed on test performance scores were also investigated. Both the DR and SR were found to have concurrent validity in the group studied, correlated to a directly measured VO2max (ml kg−1·min−1) determined through a progressive bicycle ergometer test. However, predicted VO2max values using SR results differed significantly from measured values. Weight was not found to be significantly correlated with either of the predictive methods, whereas maximal sprint running speed, as measured through a 40-m dash, was found to correlate significantly with the results of both the DR and SR. These results suggest that the combined influence of running efficiency and anaerobic energy production significantly influence the performance of both predictive methods.
Peter Hofmann and Rochus Pokan
The heart rate performance curve (HRPC) has been shown to be nonlinearly related to work load. This phenomenon has been used to determine a defection point and to be related to the lactate anaerobic threshold. The original method was heavily criticized, and the method was challenged by several authors. However, some authors also demonstrated a high value for this method’s application in various sports conditions. Unfortunately, the HRPC was shown to be not uniform and three different patterns were found. Basic investigations have shown a dependence of the HR-defection on beta1-receptor sensitivity, which gave a plausible explanation of the phenomenon. Important details regarding the testing protocol and the method of turn point determination are given in this review. As a conclusion, we may state that based on numerous studies the method is plausible and valid to determine aerobic exercise performance in various laboratory ergometer and specific sports-related field conditions. Standard protocol conditions adjusted to the exercise performance level of subjects and a computer-supported determination of turn points are necessary to obtain reliable results. Large-scale investigations to validate the heart rate turn point with maximal lactate steady state are still needed. However, from the available literature, the application of this noninvasive method can be recommended to determine aerobic exercise performance in various sports. This noninvasive test is easy to perform repeatedly, which gives interesting possibilities for the monitoring of training adaptation in the short term, such as altitude training or specifc taper forms.
Thomas C. Ball, Samuel A. Headley, Paul M. Vanderburgh and John C. Smith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 7% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) drink on sprint capacity immediately following 50 min of high-intensity cycling. After an overnight 12-hr fast, 8 trained male cyclists performed two 50-min simulated time trials on a Monark stationary cycle ergometer. Subjects consumed either the CE or a flavored water placebo (PL) at 10, 20, 30, and 40 min during the time trial. At the conclusion of each 50-min time trial, subjects immediately performed a Wingate Anaerobic Power Test. Peak power, mean power, and minimum power were significantly higher for the CE trials, whereas mean RPE was significantly lower. Mean heart rate and fatigue index were not different between trials. These results suggest that sprint performance following a high-intensity simulated time trial of only 50 min can be improved with periodic consumption of CE during the ride, particularly following an overnight fast, when liver glycogen is likely to be low. These findings have implications for competitive cycling, where sprint capacity at the conclusion of a race is an important determinant of success.
Kim Hébert-Losier, Kurt Jensen and Hans-Christer Holmberg
Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening-cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes.
The authors investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) from treadmill assessments.
During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, times to peak force, and prestretch augmentation, albeit lower SJ heights and peak powers. Between-groups differences were unclear for CMJ heights, hopping stiffness, and most SLJ parameters. Large pairwise correlations were observed between relative peak and time to peak forces and sprinting velocities; time to peak forces and running velocities; and prestretch augmentation and forest-running velocities. Prestretch augmentation and time to peak forces were moderately correlated to VO2peak. Correlations between running economy and jumping or hopping were small or trivial.
Overall, the elites exhibited superior stretch-shortening-cycle utilization and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.