This study compared determinants of a 30-s all-out paddling effort (30-s sprint-paddling test) between junior surfboard riders (surfers) of varying ability. Eight competitive (COMP) and 8 recreational (REC) junior male surfers performed a 30-s sprint-paddling test for the determination of peak sprint power and accumulated O2 deficit. Surfers also performed an incremental-paddling test for the determination of the O2 uptake–power output relationship that was subsequently used to calculate the accumulated O2 deficit for the 30-s sprint-paddling test. During the 30-s sprint-paddling test, peak sprint power (404 ± 98 vs 292 ± 56 W, respectively, P = .01) and the accumulated O2 deficit (1.60 ± 0.31 vs 1.14 ± 0.38 L, respectively, P = .02) were greater in COMP than in REC surfers, whereas peak O2 uptake measured during the incremental-paddling test was not different (2.7 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 L/min, respectively, P = .11). The higher peak sprint power and larger accumulated O2 deficit observed in COMP than in REC surfers during a 30-s sprint paddling test suggest that surfing promotes development of the anaerobic energy systems. Furthermore, peak sprint power determined during 30 s of sprint paddling may be considered a sensitive measure of surfing ability or experience in junior male surfers.
Clare L. Minahan, Danielle J. Pirera, Beth Sheehan, Luke MacDonald and Phillip M. Bellinger
Tara K. Scanlan and Michael W. Passer
The purpose of this field study was to examine the effects of game win-loss and margin of victory or defeat on postgame attributions. Male competitive soccer players (N= 160) were asked to attribute causality for their teams' win or loss and for their individual performance during the game to the internal factors of ability and effort and to the external factors of opponent difficulty and luck. It was proposed that, in sport, self-esteem protecting biases could be constrained by the emphasis placed on internal causal determinants of performance, and by situational norms which limit the acceptability of external attributions. In accordance with these contentions, the findings showed that although winning players attributed greater causality to internal factors than did losers, losing players still assessed internal attributes to be the most important determinants of game outcome and personal performance. Further, losers were not more external in their causal ascriptions than winners. The margin of victory or defeat did not affect players' causal attributions or their judgments of how much ability, effort, difficulty with the opponent, and luck they personally had in the game. The margin of outcome did impact players' judgments regarding how much of these attributes their team had demonstrated during the game.
Robert S. Weinberg, Daniel Gould, David Yukelson and Allen Jackson
This investigation was designed to determine the effects of preexisting and manipulated self-efficacy on competitive motor performance. Male (n = 46) and female (n = 46) subjects were classified as being high or low in preexisting self-efficacy before the experiment began and were randomly assigned to either a high- or low-manipulated self-efficacy condition in a 2 × 2 × 2 (sex by self-efficacy by manipulated efficacy) design. Efficacy was manipulated by having subjects compete against a confederate on a muscular leg-endurance task where the confederate was said to be either a varsity track athlete (low-manipulated self-efficacy) or an individual who had had knee surgery (high-manipulated self-efficacy). To create aversive consequences, the experiment was rigged so that subjects lost in competition on the two muscular leg endurance task trials they performed. Both preexisting and manipulated self-efficacy were found to significantly influence performance, with preexisting self-efficacy influencing performance only on Trial 1 and manipulated self-efficacy only on Trial 2. The findings support Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy and are discussed in terms of the permeability of initial efficacy states.
Maureen R. Weiss and Carl T. Hayashi
The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child influences associated with highly competitive gymnastics participation. Athletes (n = 24) responded to self-report measures of perceived parental influences, and the athletes’ parents (n = 39) responded to interview questions regarding the influence of their child’s gymnastics involvement on their own behaviors. Descriptive analyses of gymnasts’ responses revealed that parents (a) frequently attended meets, (b) encouraged their child’s participation extensively, (c) demonstrated positive affect toward their child’s involvement, and (d) held positive beliefs and realistic expectations about their child’s competence. Parents’ responses indicated large time and financial investments as a result of their child’s involvement and indicated that their child’s participation positively influenced such behaviors as (a) attendance at gymnastics meets, (b) reading sports-related literature, (c) watching sports on television, (d) participating in fitness-related activities, and (e) parenting in general. These findings support theory and research that advocate the reciprocal nature of parent-child socialization effects in sport.
David E. Conroy and Jonathan N. Metzler
Although self-talk and anxiety are both held to influence sport performance, little is known about the relationship between these two psychological phenomena in sport. The introject surface of a circumplex model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior; SASB) is presented as a tool for integrating popular existing schemes for classifying self-talk in sport. Using a sample of 440 college-age men and women, the present study examined the relationship between SASB-defined patterns of state-specific self-talk (while failing, while succeeding, wished for, and feared) and three forms of situation-specific trait performance anxiety: fear of failure (FF), fear of success (FS), and sport anxiety (SA). Distinct patterns of self-talk were associated with competitive anxieties in sport; the strongest effects were associated with FF and SA, in that order, whereas FS was more weakly associated with systematic patterns of self-talk. These results are consistent with cognitive theories of anxiety and may be used to inform assessments, diagnoses, and treatments of performance anxiety problems in sport.
Daniel Gould, Linda Petlichkoff, Jeff Simons and Mel Vevera
This study examined whether linear or curvilinear (inverted-U) relationships exist between Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 subscale scores and pistol shooting performance in a paradigm that addressed previous design, methodological, and data analysis problems. Officers (N = 39) from the University of Illinois Police Training Institute served as subjects and participated in a pistol shooting competition. Each subject shot on five separate occasions, immediately after completing the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1983), a multidimensional measure of state anxiety. It was predicted that cognitive state anxiety would be more related to performance than would somatic state anxiety. However, relationships between both types of anxiety and performance were predicted to support inverted-U as opposed to linear relationships. Self-confidence was predicted to be positively related to performance. Results were analyzed using the intraindividual analysis procedures recommended by Sonstroem and Bernardo (1982) and showed that cognitive anxiety was not related to performance, somatic anxiety was related to performance in a curvilinear (inverted-U) fashion, and confidence was negatively related to performance.
Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Steve F. Fraser, Nigel K. Stepto, Rudi Klein, William G. Hopkins and John A. Hawley
Eight competitive oarswomen (age, 22 ± 3 years; mass, 64.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed three simulated 2,000-m time trials on a rowing ergometer. The trials, which were preceded by a 24-hour dietary and training control and 72 hours of caffeine abstinence, were condueted 1 hour after ingesting caffeine (6 or 9 mg kg ’ body mass) or placebo. Plasma free fatty acid concentrations before exercise were higher with caffeine than placebo (0.67 ± 0.34 vs. 0.72 ± 0.36 vs. 0.30±0.10 mM for 6 and 9 mg · kg−1; caffeine and placebo, respectively; p <.05). Performance lime improved 0.7% (95% confidence interval [Cf] 0 to 1.5%) with 6 mg kg−1 caffeine and 1.3$ (95% CI 0.5 to 2.0%) with 9 mg · kg−1 caffeine. The first 500 m of the 2,000 m was faster with the higher caffeine dose compared with placebo or the lower dose (1.53 ± 0.52 vs. 1.55 ± 0.62 and 1.56 ± 0.43 min; p = .02). We concluded that caffeine produces a worthwhile enhancement of performance in a controlled laboratory setting, primarily by improving the first 500 m of a 2,000-m row.
Richard H. Cox, Matthew P. Martens and William D. Russell
The purpose of this study was to use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to revise the factor structure of the CSAI-2 using one data set, and then to use CFA to validate the revised structure using a second data set. The first data set (calibration sample) consisted of 503 college-age intramural athletes, and the second (validation sample) consisted of 331 intercollegiate (Division I) and interscholastic athletes. The results of the initial CFA on the calibration sample resulted in a poor fit to the data. Using the Lagrange Multiplier Test (Gamma) as a guide, CSAI-2 items that loaded on more than one factor were sequentially deleted. The resulting 17-item revised CSAI-2 was then subjected to a CFA using the validation data sample. The results of this CFA revealed a good fit of the data to the model (CFI = .95, NNFI = .94, RMSEA = .054). It is suggested that the CSAI-2R instead of the CSAI-2 be used by researchers and practitioners for measuring competitive state anxiety in athletes.
Lynette L. Craft, T. Michelle Magyar, Betsy J. Becker and Deborah L. Feltz
The multidimensional approach to the study of anxiety (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990a) considers subcomponents of anxiety, specifically cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence. Much of the research based on this theory has utilized the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory (CSAI-2) (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990b). Findings have been inconsistent, with some research suggesting that the three subcomponents have separate relationships with performance and other studies failing to find any relationship between the anxiety subcomponents and performance. This meta-analysis examined the effect of state anxiety as measured by the CSAI-2 (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence) on athletic performance. Studies were coded for characteristics that could potentially moderate the effects of anxiety on performance (i.e., features of design, subjects, sport). Interdependency between the three subscales was examined using multivariate meta-analytic techniques (Becker & Schram, 1994). Relationships among cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, self-confidence, and performance appeared weak. Exploratory modeling showed that self-confidence displayed the strongest and most consistent relationship with performance.
Ralph L. Pim
The purpose of this paper is to examine the values-based competitive sport program at the United States Military Academy (West Point), and to determine if the components of character and leadership development were associated with team success. Strategies employed at West Point to develop cultures that produced leaders of character and teams of significance were reviewed. Major points of emphasis in the competitive sport program included (i) teaching values through sport, (ii) identifying and defining core values, (iii) developing warrior athletes of character, (iv) building teams and cultures of significance, (v) reinforcing values through recognition, and (vi) assessing character and leader development of athletes and teams. Characteristics and specific behaviors of great leaders and teams were identified. A rubric for assessing character and leader development in sport and a survey evaluating the competitive sport experience on the desired learning outcomes of the West Point Cadet Leader Development System were presented. Results indicated that competitive sports programs built on values encouraged and developed behaviors that produced success both on and off the field. Subsequent investigations are recommended to identify how character and leadership development can be integrated into the coaching process and applied in civilian secondary schools and institutions of higher learning.