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Jérémy B. J. Coquart, Yancy Dufour, Alain Groslambert, Régis Matran and Murielle Garcin

The purpose was to study the relationships between psychological factors and perceptually-based values (Ratings of Perceived Exertion: RPE and Estimated Time Limit: ETL). The researchers obtained the scores of several psychological factors (anxiety, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-stability, self-esteem, motivation, psychological resistance and endurance, desire for success, social desirability, dynamism, competitiveness, activity control, risk-taking, emotional control, aggressiveness, sociability, cooperation, acceptance of a judgment, and leadership) among 23 cyclists. The cyclists performed a graded exercise test in which the researchers collected RPE and ETL at 150, 200, 250 and 300W. Correlations between RPE/ETL and psychological factors were examined. RPE was correlated with leadership, psychological resistance and endurance. ETL was significantly correlated with psychological endurance. These results suggest a link between psychological factors, effort perception, and the time limits predicted by teleoanticipation. These relationships varied according to intensity.

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Thomas A. Bergandi, Marsha G. Shryock and Thomas G. Titus

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a sport-specific version of Nideffer’s (1976a) Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS), specifically in regard to the sport of basketball. Collegiate basketball players (N = 43) participated in the research, 20 males and 23 females. The subjects were administered two instruments, the original TAIS and the Basketball Concentration Survey (BCS). The items contained in the BCS were a conversion of the 59 pertinent items contained in the original. The instruments were administered early in the season and the results were correlated with nine seasonal performance variables ranging from field-goal percentage to total number of steals. The results show the BCS to have significant reliability as well as significantly accounting for performance variability. The BCS had highly significant correlations with seven of the nine performance variables.

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Ralph Renger

The purpose of this paper is to reiterate the importance of testing for the predictive validity of regression and discriminant solutions in studies devoted to the prediction of athletic success. Two approaches to test for the predictive validity of regression and discriminant solutions, longitudinal and cross-validation, are reviewed. Statistical issues relating to predictive validity, including small case to predictor ratios, multicollinearity, and the limitations of stepwise regression are discussed. The paper also examines alternative methodologies that would enable researchers to obtain better estimates of predictive validity. Several studies in the prediction of athletic success that have reported high squared multiple correlation coefficients (R 2) are reviewed. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate how various statistical limitations bring into question the conclusions drawn from these studies.

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Sandra E. Short, Matthew Smiley and Lindsay Ross-Stewart

This study examined the relationship between coaching efficacy and imagery use. Eighty-nine coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale and a modified version of the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. Results showed significant positive correlations among the coaching efficacy subscales and imagery functions. Regression analyses showed that the significant predictor for game strategy efficacy was CG imagery. Predictors for motivation efficacy included career record and MG-M imagery. MG-M imagery and total years of coaching were the significant predictors for total efficacy scores and character building efficacy. The only significant predictor for teaching technique efficacy was CS. The results replicate and extend the relationships found between efficacy and imagery for athletes and show that imagery also may be an effective strategy to build and maintain coaching efficacy.

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Brian C. Focht, Wendy M. Sanders, Peter H. Brubaker and W. Jack Rejeski

The authors examined the validity of the Computer Science and Application (CSA) activity monitor during a bout of rehabilitative exercise among older adults with chronic disease. In order to determine convergent validity, 50 participants were monitored during a 30-min walk in Study 1. In order to assess concurrent validity, 10 volunteers wore both a CSA accelerometer and a Cosmed K4 b2 portable gas-analysis unit during 30 min of rehabilitative exercise in Study 2. Study 1 results revealed significant (p < .01) positive relationships between mean CSA activity counts and estimated METs (r = .60), pedometer readings (r = .47), 6-min walk (r = .62), and self-efficacy (r = .45). Study 2 results demonstrated a significant (p < .01) positive correlation between CSA activity counts and oxygen uptake (r = .72). The findings suggest that the CSA activity monitor is an effective objective measure of physical activity during a structured, moderate-intensity bout of exercise among older adults with chronic disease.

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Koen A.P.M. Lemmink, Han C.G. Kemper, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Piet Rispens and Martin Stevens

This article focuses on the validity of the circumduction test for measuring shoulder flexibility in older adults. Participants included 137 community-dwelling older adults. Equipment consisted of a cord with a fixed handle on one end and a sliding handle on the other. The sliding handle was adjusted so that the cord length between the 2 handles equaled the participant’s shoulder width. Holding the 2 handles, the participant must pass the cord from the front of the body over the head and as far back as possible with extended arms. The score is the fanning-out angle. Forward flexion, abduction, horizontal retroflexion, and outward rotation were also measured. The test and criterion measurements were administered within 1 wk. The criterion-related validity of the circumduction test as a measure of forward flexion and horizontal retroflexion received support from moderate correlations. Its use as a measure of abduction and outward rotation, however, received no support from the data.

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Del N. Konopka, Robin P. Shook, Marian L. Kohut, Rosalie Vos Tulp and Warren D. Franke

The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a common component of fitness assessments of older adults; however, differing course configurations might affect 6MWT performance. It is unclear how comparable 2 different configurations are. To determine the comparability of 2 courses, 35 adults ≥65 years of age completed two 6MWT, once walking around a 20- by 5-yd outdoor rectangle and once on an indoor oval track (circumference 144.3 yd). Scores for the 2 tests were internally consistent (intraclass correlation coefficient = .95). The participants walked farther on the oval track than around the rectangle (639 ± 19 vs. 582 ± 16 yd; p < .0001), but responses to the rectangular configuration could be readily estimated using the equation 66.7 yd + 0.807 × (oval walking distance), R 2 = .85. Thus, within-participant responses are similar across both 6MWT, but the course configuration affects the distance walked.

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Chun-Hao Wang and Chia-Liang Tsai

The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.

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Mona Seymour, Kim D. Reynolds and Jennifer Wolch


Reliable audit tools are needed to examine the potential of built environment features for physical activity.


An audit tool for alley environments was developed with land use, substrate, and use, condition, and safety items. Two audit teams independently audited 29 Los Angeles alleys, and interteam reliability was calculated with Cohen’s and prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) statistics; intraclass correlation coefficients; and percent observed agreement.


Forty-two of 47 dichotomous items analyzed for reliability had PABAK values ≥ 0.61 (“substantial agreement”). Sixteen of 23 ordinal and continuous response items analyzed had ICCs ≥ 0.61, and an additional 6 with lower ICC values had observed agreement ≥ 79%. Items concerning the presence or absence of use-related alley features demonstrated the lowest reliability.


The instrument has acceptable reliability for most of its items and appears to be a promising tool for use by other researchers and professionals in the measurement of alley environments.

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Kimberley A. Dawson, Lawrence R. Brawley and James E. Maddux

Many researchers in psychology and physical activity have discussed the overlap among control constructs in various theories. Skinner (1996) proposed an integrative control framework based on an agent-means-ends distinction that offered comparisons among and more explicit measurement of 3 control constructs—control, capacity, and strategy beliefs. No study in the exercise domain has yet empirically examined these advantages. This study evaluated Skinner’s framework relative to their contribution to predicting exercise attendance. A prospective design was used to consider the potential change in the nature of the relationships. High correlations (range r = .52–.88) at 2 time points in the exercise program suggested overlap among control constructs when using Skinner’s measurement procedures. Only capacity beliefs and behavioral intention were significantly related to exercise attendance (model R 2 adjusted = .11 and .16, p = .03 and .01, respectively, at onset and midprogram).Adjusted The findings do not support Skinner’s contentions but are similar to previous findings in the exercise literature.