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Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Darwyn E. Linder and Nancy S. Van Raalte

Three experiments were conducted to determine which remembered qualities of the peak performance state are robust and to investigate whether recall biases may affect accounts of peak experiences. In the first experiment, introductory psychology students rated psychological characteristics of their best, average, and worst sport performances. Focused attention and confidence were the qualities most strongly identified with peak performance. The second experiment replicated and extended these findings in a sample of intercollegiate cross-country runners and tennis players. In the third experiment, subjects (a) completed a pursuit rotor task; (b) were randomly assigned to receive success, failure, or no feedback; and (c) rated their psychological state during performance. Results indicated that the bogus performance feedback significantly affected ratings of psychological states experienced during performance. Subjects given success feedback perceived themselves as being more confident and focused on the task than subjects given failure feedback. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

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Robert R.A. van Doorn and Pieter J.A. Unema

The present study showed that movement execution depends on the direct visual environment. We replicated findings of an earlier study that showed a difference between real time information via a trace of the unfolding trajectory, and cursor feedback constituting real time information about the changing movement location. Detailed analyses involving subdividing a movement into four successive sections revealed that movements governed by trace feedback were typically slower and required more feedback guidance near the occurrence of peak velocity. The present study further showed that movement behavior under the two visual modes diverged even more due to the presence of a static object positioned within the action area of the movement. Movements in the trace feedback condition were affected by the presence of an object in the second half of the movement trajectory when the movement reached peak deceleration. Discussion focuses on the differences between the two modes of online visual information.

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Andrew Hawkins, Robert L. Wiegand and Dennis K. Landin

Research indicates that feedback given to teacher trainees is often vague and incomplete. Frequently the feedback fails to provide specific strategies designed to improve subsequent teaching performances. This investigation developed a taxonomy of feedback strategies based on the content of data-based feedback provided by teacher educators to teacher trainees in peer teaching. Strategies were categorized to correspond with specific data situations frequently observed in the lessons. A discussion of the rationale for the strategies, coupled with descriptive data on the frequency of strategy selection, revealed much about the interpretive model that teacher educators may superimpose on data. Additional study on the empirical validation of the taxonomy is warranted subsequent to this descriptive/logical point of departure.

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Hans van der Mars, Paul Darst, Bill Vogler and Barbara Cusimano

Supervision patterns of elementary physical educators were analyzed in relation to work involvement patterns of students in each teacher’s class. The supervision patterns analyzed included teacher location, rate of movement, and provision of verbal feedback. Work involvement by students was categorized into on-task, off-task, total motor engagement, and successful motor engagement (ALT-PE). Results showed that teachers spent more time along the periphery of the activity area, and that they were positioned more along the sides. They were active movers, averaging six sector changes per minute, and active in providing verbal feedback (3.2/min). Teacher feedback patterns did not correlate with teacher location/movement patterns. Teachers’ location (periphery) and movement correlated significantly with students’ total motor engagement. Teacher movement also correlated significantly with ALT-PE. Positive behavior feedback correlated with students’ on-task behaviors. Findings indicate that active supervision is important in maintaining students’ involvement with learning tasks in physical education.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Anthony J. Amorose and Anna Marie Wilko

Based on Harter’s (12,13) competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationship of coaches’ performance feedback and motivational climate with female athletes’ perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Female adolescent soccer players (N = 141) completed measures of relevant constructs toward the latter part of their season. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that athletes’ perceptions of greater positive and informational feedback given by coaches in response to successful performance attempts, greater emphasis placed on a mastery climate, and less emphasis placed on a performance climate, were significantly related to greater ability perceptions, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Exploratory analyses also showed that the relationship between feedback and the psychosocial outcomes may vary as a function of the perceived motivational climate. Overall, these results suggest that coaching feedback and motivational climate are important contributors to explaining adolescent females’ continued motivation to participate in sport.

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Christopher Atwater, Jered Borup, Robert Baker and Richard E. West

This qualitative case study examined student perceptions of video communication with their instructor in an online research and writing course for sport and recreation graduate students. All students participated in two personalized Skype video calls with the instructor and received two video and text feedback critiques of their written projects. Eight students were interviewed following the course. Despite minor technological and scheduling concerns, students found that their Skype calls helped form a relationship with their instructor and improved their confidence in the course. Students found that video feedback recordings on their written projects were elaborate and friendly, while text feedback comments tended to be more convenient, efficient, and concise. However, all students reported that the advantages of video feedback outweighed the advantages of text. The article concludes with recommendations for future research and for online instructors who wish to effectively blend these forms of communication.

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William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

attendees from both meetings. The Project Working Group reinforces the co-production process, providing guidance and feedback to the ASAPa team across the work, but with special emphasis on the development of an integrated cross-government framework for PA, and developing appropriate specifications for a PA

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Alison L. Marshall

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to determine if feedback on step counts from a pedometer encourages participants to increase walking.

Methods:

Randomly recruited older adults (n = 105) were asked to wear a pedometer for 2 wk. Half the participants were asked to monitor and record daily step counts during week 1 (feedback), then seal the pedometer shut during week 2 (no feedback). Half completed the study in reverse order. Self-reported walking was assessed via telephone interviews.

Results:

Significantly more steps were recorded per day (approximately 400 steps per day) when participants (n = 103, 63% women; mean BMI 25 ± 4) monitored their daily step count [t (102) = –2.30, P = 0.02)] compared to the no feedback condition. There was no statistically significant difference in self-reported walking (P = 0.31) between feedback conditions.

Conclusion:

The difference in daily step counts observed between conditions, while statistically significant, may not be considered clinically significant. Further, the non-significant difference in self-reported walking between conditions suggests that feedback on daily step counts from a pedometer does not encourage participants to increase their walking.

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Amanda M. Ward, Torrey M. Loucks, Edward Ofori and Jacob J. Sosnoff

Audiomotor and visuomotor short-term memory are required for an important variety of skilled movements but have not been compared in a direct manner previously. Audiomotor memory capacity might be greater to accommodate auditory goals that are less directly related to movement outcome than for visually guided tasks. Subjects produced continuous isometric force with the right index finger under auditory and visual feedback. During the first 10 s of each trial, subjects received continuous auditory or visual feedback. For the following 15 s, feedback was removed but the force had to be maintained accurately. An internal effort condition was included to test memory capacity in the same manner but without external feedback. Similar decay times of ~5–6 s were found for vision and audition but the decay time for internal effort was ~4 s. External feedback thus provides an advantage in maintaining a force level after feedback removal, but may not exclude some contribution from a sense of effort. Short-term memory capacity appears longer than certain previous reports but there may not be strong distinctions in capacity across different sensory modalities, at least for isometric force.

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James N. Roemmich, Christina L. Lobarinas, Jacob E. Barkley, Tressa M. White, Rocco Paluch and Leonard H. Epstein

This study evaluated the effectiveness of an open-loop system that reinforces physical activity with TV watching to increase children’s physical activity. Nonoverweight, sedentary boys and girls (8–12 y) were randomized to a group that received feedback of activity counts + reinforcement for physical activity by providing access to television (F+R, n = 20); or to feedback, no reinforcement (Feedback, n = 20) or no feedback, no reinforcement control (Control, n = 21) groups. Children wore an accelerometer with a count display for 4-months with a 1-year follow-up. F+R reduced TV by 68 min/day and TV time was lower than the Feedback (p < .005) and Control (p < .002) groups. TV time of F+R remained 31 min lower (p < .02) than baseline at 1-year. F+R had a 44% increase in physical activity, which was greater than the feedback (p < .04) and control (p < .01) groups. An open-loop system decreases TV viewing and increases physical activity of children for 4-months. TV of the F+R group remained lower at 12 months, suggesting a reduction in screen-time habits.