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Guro Strøm Solli, Pål Haugnes, Jan Kocbach, Roland van den Tillaar, Per Øyvind Torvik and Øyvind Sandbakk

including intervals of higher intensity than done here. In our approach, 2 tests were performed on the same day, and significantly better performance was found during test 2 compared with test 1. Also, previous studies have shown that performance of a prior bout (priming) of high-intensity exercise results

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

access to a hypoxic chamber. By contrast, we found no differences in SmO 2 between conditions. The evidence of larger muscle deoxygenation during high-intensity exercise in hypoxic conditions is scarce. Some authors reported an increased muscle deoxygenation when performing sprints under hypoxic

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

ingested KME + CHO compared with CHO alone ( Evans & Egan, 2018 ). In contrast, a recent KS study showed no benefit to cognitive performance following high-intensity exercise ( Waldman et al., 2018 ). These divergent findings can likely be attributed to the differences observed in plasma D -β

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

.19.1.34 10.1123/ijsnem.19.1.34 Davis , J.M. , Welsh , R.S. , & Alerson , N.A. ( 2000 ). Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 10 ( 4 ), 476 – 485 . PubMed ID

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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

analogs’ critical force (CF, in newtons) and W ′ (in newton seconds) will be referred to (eg, Hendrix et al 8 ). Figure 1 —Illustration of the power or force–time relationship for high-intensity exercise. The numbered points (1–3) represent time to exhaustion for independent tests at the power or force

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

palmitate (i.e., 16.13 ATP/mole per C 2 unit), fat utilization declines from moderate- to high-intensity exercise ( Achten et al., 2002 ), whereas absolute KB utilization increases ( Cox et al., 2016 ). The ingestion of ketone esters has also been shown to attenuate carbohydrate utilization as demonstrated

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

-intensity exercise, which is compelling from both a rehabilitation and clinical perspective, as the mechanisms may be applicable for those who could benefit from using BFR but with contraindications to high-intensity exercise, that is, a wide range of populations, including those with vascular diseases or elderly

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

result in an impaired capacity to perform high-intensity exercise. 25 Current evidence has shown no effects or even a detrimental effect in efforts of different duration, from sprints lasting 2 to 15 s 13 , 22 to endurance time trials lasting 40 to 50 min. 14 , 17 Future research should analyze if

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, Rebecca Cross and Jason Siegler

The ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) is well accepted as an efficacious ergogenic aid to improve short-duration, high-intensity exercise performance. 1 The exogenous intake of NaHCO 3 acts as an extracellular buffer, raising blood pH and bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) concentrations and

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Mark Evans, Peter Tierney, Nicola Gray, Greg Hawe, Maria Macken and Brendan Egan

samples taken before or after competing contain detectable quantities of caffeine ( Del Coso et al., 2011 ). However, effects on short-duration high-intensity exercise performance are equivocal to date, with a large degree of variability based on the dose of caffeine administered ( Spriet, 2014 ) and the